Many scientist believe that biligual people will have less probabilities of having alzhaimer or other madness. Start learning a new language now that you know how many good things it brings you. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account.
Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: And yet, there are certain experiences that simply ache to be expressed in French or Spanish, or Norwegian.. Latin and Arabic and other languages are also subject to falling victim to my poetic palette. Of course, there is an enormous responsibility connected with such sport.
Poetry is not a precise discipline for most of us - it is full of abandonment, liberties and artistic license.. My own experiences to date with bilingualism in writing have generally been quite positive. That is perhaps only because I have learned to "soar" as an international poet, rather than to continuously knock at the door of national and local arts institutions whose mandate and focus are often more nationalistic and transcultural rather than international.
I have also gone my "own way" in terms of publishing - seeking out or being sought out by publishers who are culture-blind and truly international in scope, practice and philosophy. This is understandable in that many of these publishers are small press enterprises, with limited resources.
Personally, I rather like having their trust, and being responsible for my own artistic ex-pression. Am I sometimes unsure? Especially when I write about politics or religion, or when I wonder if some socio-political themes acceptable in the Western world will be accepted in Asia or Africa. Poetry may be universal, but ideas and values are often culture-specific. It is that tension that makes bilingual poetry writing and performance a breathtaking sport for me, I suppose.
I do not speak, write or understand any language anywhere near "perfectly". However, desiring to "get it right - both linguistically and culturally" - and writing with intent and on a level commensurate with my linguistic skills and cultural understanding , is always a goal; if not an obsession when writing in any language.
In spite of much research and proof reading, I admit that I do not always get everything perfect. It happens that I do misunderstand grammatical rules and indigenous nuances in foreign languages, or quite simply use the wrong word in the intended context. I have also experienced that proof readers and translators have sometimes disagreed upon how something is best expressed, creating even more insecurity on my part.
And cultural references in poetry can also be problematic, since different persons observe and experience things through different eyes. Yes, I do react sometimes when I read particularly and consistently faulty English which perhaps could have been avoided by asking or paying someone to proof read. This goes for native-born English-speaking poets as well as poets who do not have English as their first language. So much is lost for both the author and the reader in such cases - and quite unnecessarily so.
But then again, not all speakers of English speak "the Queen's English", and if English may be prone to being used or interpreted differently from culture to culture then the same is certainly true for other languages. Here one must also differentiate between creative play with language and idiom, and plain oversight. Expect that you will make mistakes sometimes, and that you may later discover that you have misinterpreted another culture's idiom or sensibility in your writing. When reading the poetry of others try to evaluate some of the questions and challenges posed in this essay and the following interview against your own levels of curiosity and personal tolerances.
And perhaps most importantly: Fame will find you if that is your destiny and disposition - no matter what language you employ. To explore these issues a bit further, I have devised 10 sets of rather pointed questions; and I have asked five excellent international writers to comment on them, giving their "international" perspectives. Their varied comments and experiences are - of course - their own, and not necessarily those of the interviewer.
Would you say it is: A sense of not getting anywhere in my own language. A feeling of inadequacy, memories of failures and so on. And yes, reaching a bigger audience too. It is very candid to project an image, according to one's original intention, in another language, where also, perhaps, a point of contact exists.
The point of contact being between two languages; through language from the experience of the author who sails daily between these two languages. For me, actually, it is a way to sail strange waters in as much as sailing them has become a part of my homo poeticum, an important part of my writing identity.
Sometimes I feel in Spanish and I write it thinking about Norwegian. For that reason my texts translated into Norwegian are an interactive work of cooperation and experiences, on a concrete linguistic existential level -- between the author and his translator. To live in Norway , a small country where nevertheless so many languages co-exist, causes me to prioritize Norwegian, instead of English or French, for this same reason; not to speak of other romance languages, that in the text are nearer Spanish, my maternal language.
I have indeed a strong desire to reach out to a global market; in my case it is not a sport and least of all an ego-trip but rather an existential need, for English and French are part and parcel of my mental and I should add 'emotional' structure, and if I don't write in one language for a period of time, I feel like an orphan; for I consider both languages as my native tongues my mother being British, and I have been educated in these two languages from the very start. Then comes Italian, my 'paternal' tongue my father was Italian , and since I love languages, I also speak Spanish and German, and have a vernacular knowledge of Dutch, Swahili and Portuguese which I can only read, but not speak.
To stress my point, I would go so far as to claim that we, language speakers, are underprivileged, confronted with musicians, painters and sculptors, for they possess a universal language, which even the all-encompassing polyglot could never dream of achieving. I believe the driving force combines the desire to express and share one's native tongue - a poet's emotional fulfillment of delivering enrichment of their culture to another country shout it to the world so to speak - and of course, the accomplishment and pride of acceptance by other cultures.
I rely on editors to take time to help correct my work; even if I self-published I would still need, if not an editor, a proof reader. But if my work is translated I would prefer that a poet do the work. The problem, if we can call it a problem - it is perhaps better to call it the requirements of the publishers - is one of referential order.
When the language sometimes pronounces in that no-man's land and of all which is multilingualism, the reading of the text is often, if not always, interpreted by the referring premises; either national references or those of a strictly personal nature; they also respond to an intention limited for reasons of market, ideology and, more rarely mentioned, religion.
Even though a translator identifies himself entirely in his soul, or in the worst case, with an author who represents the contemporary ex-pression of the day, or as I said before, ideologically, the result is spurious for the simple reason that the contexts and the experiences are different. Consider, for example, the Argentine translations of the beat poets, or those passionate translations of the French symbolists to the Argentinean dialect.
Still the remarkable translations of Borges to Spanish, are recreations of authors who he possibly considered translatable, but always from his own perspective of the literary world exemplified by Borges known to the common reader as "Borgiano". In my case, my translations into Norwegian are the consequence of a permanent dialogue between two languages where the referring ones are not so distant, for the simple reason that I have lived in this country for 22 years.
Since bilingual, not to speak of multilingual editions, are not considered commercial ventures, they belong to a tiny, almost negligent niche in literature; and I admire the rare publishers and editors who devote their time, expertise and energy to producing such books or reviews. Small presses are usually very careful and do a good job editing, although, with the proliferation of Internet literary sites, there is a slackening tendency.
I do receive a good share of 'poorly written' bilingual work as well as 'poorly written' work in English. If any piece falls below Skyline Magazine standards, I would have to reject it.
As an independent small press publisher, I do not have the resources to translate or critique. I never alter or correct any poet's work, or dampen their ex-pression or enthusiasm. If I like a piece, and find a serious error, I would then consult the writer, but I must admit, I find 'poetic accent' charming and acceptable.
My readers appreciate the talent and ambition of the multilingual poet. We would not disparage a poet for a misplaced preposition or for an improper tense. We herald the efforts of multilingual poets for their amazing ability to create texts in other languages and to persevere in a highly challenging venue. Can you comment on this "virtue", and the exhilaration experienced when one succeeds?
When I sent a poem to an English magazine for the very first time, it was rejected; but the rejection was followed by a letter urging me to go on, telling me that I was on the right track and THAT was exhilarating.
If I had not been so rudely rejected by Norwegian editors, I might not have undertaken some efforts which have, at times, been too absorbing. My poems which are written directly in Norwegian or English normally have been inspired by alcohol or by a woman; both agents of another euphoria which is more transitory than indelible; the result which normally has been rather more anecdotal than literary. I write in Spanish with translations to Norwegian and that is sufficient for me, so far.
My first translated poems were motivated by the curiosity of my Norwegian friends, not so much in order to become acquainted with my poems in their own language, but perhaps to verify that I really am a "poet", or to verify that my poetry was a serious talent or endeavour. Once published, I could verify that a large group of poetry readers exist in this corner of the world, and in spite of these rather modest publications, I received good commentaries and I sold out the complete edition.
Now, that which for me is an apparent paradox, is that the most avid readers of these poems, have been those readers whose native language is Norwegian. Yes, there is a 'freedom' and an exhilaration in writing in another language which is different from the feeling one has, writing in one's mother tongue.
Having taught languages for several decades to adults, I observed a recurring attitude in the learner: There was a sense of freedom never before attained. Of course, writing is a much more serious enterprise, and the responsibility on the creator is proportionate to the endeavour. I can only imagine the gratification a multilingual poet experiences, who possesses the ability to compose expertly in more than one language without the use of a translator, and has been accepted into other cultures.
It's an admirable feat not easily achieved. Is it perhaps acceptable to write some bad bilingual poetry, inevitable to perform some bilingual poetry badly but "unforgivable" to publish bad bilingual poetry? To write second-rate bilingual poetry is not acceptable. A proper editor would not be influenced by that. I used to make that very clear in the beginning my first wife used to say; "You write well for a foreigner" and it never failed to send me into a deep depression.
What can I say? Try, try again if you believe in yourself. In Norway I am considered a bilingual author, and I am treated as such in that my texts are published or read in both languages. As a bilingual poet, I am fascinated by the interplay between my original and the translated versions, and I enjoy seeing how the original becomes transformed through the translation process. As far as giving a specific answer to your question: How then can we speak of good and bad poetry?
It is always unforgivable to write poorly in whatever language one chooses to write. If one wants to start writing in another language, one has to be as precise and as scrupulous as possible, and never submit work for publication that hasn't been reviewed by a native editor.
I love the example of Joseph Conrad who started learning English in his adult years, and who eventually became one the great authors of the English language. I do not accept any form of poetry that I feel is below par for Skyline Magazine, regardless of who has written it. We have high standards for publication.
I do feel however, that I allow more freedom of composition and poetic license to multilingual poets. As a publisher, I find no particular risk in doing so, as my readers appreciate the efforts of writers who undertake this difficult task. They are energetic and courageous, poetic pioneers, and should be rewarded for their extraordinary efforts. We must give them every opportunity to sharpen their multicultural writing skills and encourage them.
Even in the face of failure, writing is a learning experience for all of us, in all cultures. There is always room for improvement and growth. When a second language is concerned, the conversational level of fluency is normally acquired by two years of an individual's beginning the acquisition process.
However, it normally takes at least five years in order to communicate at the level of a native speaker or on a superior academic level. It is important to understand bilingual students and support them, especially during the beginning of their academic acquisition process, in order to ensure their transition into mainstream society so they will communicate effectively Cummins.
In studies conducted to determine how easily language acquisition is for children, it was found that children aged 7 to 9 normally performed the best of all age groups when taught a second language over the course of nine months. This is most likely evident due to the fact that younger children have not quite mastered all of the skills necessary to be superior in their enunciation and oral fluency of their native language, thus causing the acquisition of a second language to prove a bit more challenging than a group of 7 to 9 year olds who have mastered these skills already Collier.
A study was performed on English language learners attending U. The participants took part in all of the projects and then met for a focus group to share their experiences. There were four themes found to be present in the analysis of the data: It was found through this study that multilingual education is the best way to help future generations of students prepare for the various societies and environmental conditions in which they will ultimately take part Hornberger.
When speaking of multilingual education, it is important to understand this education is about much more than one method of teaching and one method of learning. It is about understanding and recognizing various cultural views across the globe and helping students understand how education can be used to bridge the gaps that may linger between societies.
It is important to note that for minority individuals, bilingualism acquisition through education is of utmost priority. It is necessary in most cases when these individuals immigrate to a new country and begin working and immersing themselves into the mainstream society. They must acquire some conversational level of bilingualism if they are to carry on intelligent conversations, perform currency transfers, perform daily tasks, and a plethora of other routine duties that we commonly take for granted Linguistic human rights in education?
Conclusion It is important that the educational system recognize the importance of incorporating bilingualism in schools so that more intercultural exchanges are available and there is opportunity for growth inside and outside of the school system. It is also important to not forget about the native speakers of the majority population and remember they need to learn the language that is becoming more accepted during the present day as well. In the United States, the Hispanic population has been growing at an exponential rate.
There are masses of individuals who speak little to no Spanish and they must be introduced to this language if there is any hope at a level of communication to help bridge a cultural gap between the Hispanics living in American who are second and third generation Hispanics, thus are American citizens and native born Caucasian or African American citizens who have lived in the United States for centuries. While older individuals may resist this change, younger individuals understand to a greater extent the significance of having the ability to communicate with the different groups and how important this factor is for every day operations.
Who's afraid of bilingualism. Beyond Basic Principles pp. In Bilingualism and Education pp. On being 'bicultural' and 'intercultural'. In Intercultural Experience and Education pp. The effect of age for acquisition of a second language for school. Origins and rationale for the distinction. Moving toward critical culture consciousness in ESOL and bilingual teacher education.
Bilingual Research Journal, 32 1 , Dimensions and measurement of bilinguality and bilingualism. Multilingual education policy and practice:
Good Essays words | ( pages) | Preview Cognitive Effects of Early Bilingualism - The American educational system has fallen behind other leading nations in the world in many respects, one of which is in bilingual instruction.
For others, bilingualism means the ability to communicate in two languages but with the possibility of greater skills in one language. How Do I Teach My Child to be Bilingual?. There are different theories on the "best" way to teach a child to use two languages/5(17).
Bilingualism breaks the language barrier and opens more opportunities, different views, and better relationship. The world needs to encourage students to learn more languages to give the students become open-minded for the better human-being. Bilingualism has proven to give students better and more opportunities. Bilingualism Essay The Limitations of Language The 14th Amendment in the United States Constitution dictates that any citizen of the United States shall receive the equal protection of civil rights, with due process of the law and cannot be discriminated against based upon .
Bilingualism Essay Bilingualism in Indonesian Schools Language education is one of the primary educations in human’s early learning. A good mind is build by a good language structure, so bilingualism is the important thing that should be emphasized in human’s life. The Bilingualism is one of the most popular assignments among students' documents. If you are stuck with writing or missing ideas, scroll down and find inspiration in the best samples. Bilingualism is quite a rare and popular topic for writing an essay, but it certainly is in our database.