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Research Methodology

This article is a part of the guide:

❶The seven predominant system influences identified should not be considered discrete but as overlapping and complementary issues. Success or failure is not a measure of whether a hypothesis is accepted or refuted, because both results still advance scientific knowledge.

Implications for health care

A qualitative study of decision-making and safety in ambulance service transitions.
What Has Been Learned?

Our findings highlight the challenges of developing staff and ensuring that their skills are utilised where they are most needed within the context of organisational resource constraints and operational demands. There were widespread claims of local variability in this respect. The study findings identify this as problematic for two reasons. First, it fuels demand for ambulance service care as a route to timely treatment, when alternatives may involve delay.

Ultimately, this restricts the scope for ensuring that patients are getting the right level of care at the right time and place. The effectiveness of the paramedic role in facilitating access to appropriate care pathways hinges on relationships with other care providers e. Staff identified this as a barrier to access where the ambulance service is still viewed primarily as a transport service.

Consideration could be given to ways of improving effective teamworking and communication across service and professional boundaries. Although paramedics acknowledged the difficulties of telephone triage, they also identified how the limitations of this system impact on them.

Over-triage at the initial call-handling stage places considerable demands on both staff and vehicle resources. A related concern is the limited information conveyed to crews following triage. Initial triage was suggested as an area that warrants attention to improve resource allocation.

The findings highlight the challenges faced by front-line ambulance service staff. It was apparent that the extent and nature of the demand for ambulance conveyance represents a notable source of strain and tension for individuals and at an organisational level. For example, there were widespread claims that meeting operational demands for ambulance services limits the time available for training and professional development, with this potentially representing a risk for patients and for staff.

Staff perceptions of risk relating to patient safety extend to issues of secondary risk management, that is, personal and institutional liabilities, in particular risks associated with loss of professional registration. The belief that they are more likely to be blamed than supported by their organisation in the event of an incident was cited by staff as a source of additional anxiety when making more complex decisions.

This perceived vulnerability can provoke excessively risk-averse decisions. These issues merit further attention to examine the workforce implication of service delivery changes, including how to ensure that staff are appropriately equipped and supported to deal effectively with the demands of their role.

Paramedics identified a degree of progress in relation to the profile of patient safety within their organisations but the apparent desire within trusts to prioritise safety improvement was felt to be constrained by service demands and available resources.

Attempts to prioritise patient safety appear to focus on ensuring that formal systems are in place e. Concerns were expressed over how well these systems function to support improvement, for example how incident reports are responded to and whether lessons learned are communicated to ambulance staff within and between trusts. Consideration could be given to identifying ways of supporting ambulance service trusts to develop the safety culture within their organisation.

Service users attributed the increased demand for ambulance services to difficulties in identifying and accessing alternatives. The workshop attendees identified a range of areas for attention in relation to intervention and research, which are provided in Chapter 6 see Suggestions for potential interventions and research.

The following recommendations for research are based on the study findings:. Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Chapter 8 Conclusions and recommendations.

Implications for health care The NHS system within which the ambulance service operates is characterised in our study as fragmented and inconsistent. Recommendations for research The workshop attendees identified a range of areas for attention in relation to intervention and research, which are provided in Chapter 6 see Suggestions for potential interventions and research.

The following recommendations for research are based on the study findings: More research is needed to identify effective ways of improving the delivery of care across service boundaries, particularly for patients with limited options at present e.

Research should address structural and attitudinal barriers and how these might be overcome. The evidence points to at least two issues: It changes according to different factors. Some variables change easily, like the stock-exchange value, while other variables are almost constant, like the name of someone. Researchers are often seeking to measure variables. The variable can be a number, a name, or anything where the value can change. An example of a variable is temperature.

The temperature varies according to other variable and factors. You can measure different temperature inside and outside. If it is a sunny day, chances are that the temperature will be higher than if it's cloudy. Another thing that can make the temperature change is whether something has been done to manipulate the temperature, like lighting a fire in the chimney. In research, you typically define variables according to what you're measuring.

The independent variable is the variable which the researcher would like to measure the cause , while the dependent variable is the effect or assumed effect , dependent on the independent variable. These variables are often stated in experimental research , in a hypothesis , e. In explorative research methodology, e. They might not be stated because the researcher does not have a clear idea yet on what is really going on.

Confounding variables are variables with a significant effect on the dependent variable that the researcher failed to control or eliminate - sometimes because the researcher is not aware of the effect of the confounding variable.

The key is to identify possible confounding variables and somehow try to eliminate or control them. Operationalization is to take a fuzzy concept conceptual variables , such as ' helping behavior ', and try to measure it by specific observations, e.

The selection of the research method is crucial for what conclusions you can make about a phenomenon. It affects what you can say about the cause and factors influencing the phenomenon.

It is also important to choose a research method which is within the limits of what the researcher can do. Time, money, feasibility, ethics and availability to measure the phenomenon correctly are examples of issues constraining the research.

Choosing the scientific measurements are also crucial for getting the correct conclusion. Some measurements might not reflect the real world, because they do not measure the phenomenon as it should.

To test a hypothesis , quantitative research uses significance tests to determine which hypothesis is right. The significance test can show whether the null hypothesis is more likely correct than the research hypothesis.

Research methodology in a number of areas like social sciences depends heavily on significance tests. A significance test may even drive the research process in a whole new direction, based on the findings. The t-test also called the Student's T-Test is one of many statistical significance tests, which compares two supposedly equal sets of data to see if they really are alike or not.

The t-test helps the researcher conclude whether a hypothesis is supported or not. Drawing a conclusion is based on several factors of the research process, not just because the researcher got the expected result. It has to be based on the validity and reliability of the measurement, how good the measurement was to reflect the real world and what more could have affected the results. Anyone should be able to check the observation and logic, to see if they also reach the same conclusions.

Errors of the observations may stem from measurement-problems, misinterpretations, unlikely random events etc. A common error is to think that correlation implies a causal relationship. This is not necessarily true. Generalization is to which extent the research and the conclusions of the research apply to the real world. It is not always so that good research will reflect the real world, since we can only measure a small portion of the population at a time.

Validity refers to what degree the research reflects the given research problem, while Reliability refers to how consistent a set of measurements are.

A definition of reliability may be "Yielding the same or compatible results in different clinical experiments or statistical trials" the free dictionary. Research methodology lacking reliability cannot be trusted. Replication studies are a way to test reliability.


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In the CONCLUSION to your report, you do a number of important things: Summarize the main points you made in your introduction and review of the literature Review (very briefly) the research methods and/or design you employed.

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Sample study - Methodology, Analysis, and Conclusion Chapters 1. CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY Introduction Research Design Research Purpose Research Approach Research Strategy Population and Sampling Design Population The population of a study basically refers to the total number of people in the form of a thorough headcount of all .

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The conclusion is not the place for details about your methodology or results. Although you should give a summary of what was learned from your research, this summary should be relatively brief, since the emphasis in the conclusion is on the implications, evaluations, insights, and . Because this text is designed to focus on the methods of research, a basic understanding of statistics is assumed. As a refresher, however, and to better critique the results section of a research report, a discussion of descriptive and inferential statistics is included.

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HOW TO WRITE THESIS CONCLUSION Sajadin Sembiring, ivujoz.tk, ivujoz.tk Conclusion Writing is difficult Writing takes time When done well, writing is fun Whatever you do next, writing is useful CONCLUDING REMARKS When you write a thesis/paper, put yourself into the position of the reader. For any research project and any scientific discipline, drawing conclusions is the final, and most important, part of the process. This article is a part of the guide.