Most of the Enron promises were verbal, and the situation was never really a "sale," but a short-term leverage loan. Enron's objective, in fact, was to improve the way…… [Read More]. Decisions Made in the Simulation. The final decision the issue of organizational stakeholders and the impact of these stakeholders on the organization were of vital importance. In this context, I chose to protect the organization, even though others would have made a different choice. Thus, the wide range of decisions made in the simulation indicates that the ethical frameworks employed will be influenced by the specific issues involved in decision making.
Considering what I learned from this simulation, it seems reasonable to argue that ethical decision making is a challenging task that provides no real comfort. Even when a person believes that he or she is making the right decision, there is still some concern about whether or not the right framework for reviewing a situation has been used.
Because there are so many different "right" ways for exploring a problem, in many instances, is appears as if the individual has no other choice…… [Read More]. Fichte separate right from morality and is it a good thing?
Should they be separated? Fichte's Philosophy of Right and Ethics Why does Fichte separate right from morality and is it a good thing? Moral and political anxieties animate Fichte's entire philosophy and his perceptions to these issues that are innovative and at times tied together. His responses to Kant's vital philosophy in was a retaliation to the Kantian moral perception and its outset of human self-esteem as embedded in freedom and the moral outlook of human beings as normal agents.
Fichte's perception on Wissenschaftslehre principle was a far from the conceptions developed in by the philosophers of Foundations of the entire Wissenschaftslehre. Fichte's major works in the principle of right and morality are extensively covered in these two areas; Fichte's Foundation of Natural Right Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy And the…… [Read More].
Pinto the Ford Pinto Scandal. Where other ethical theories can provide some wiggle room with respect to actions -- Ford's attempt at a utilitarian cost-benefit analysis, for example -- human life has a special place in ethics, precisely because it cannot be replaced or repaired once taken.
This categorical imperative supersedes all other philosophies because of the special status of human life. Clearly, all reasonable codes of ethics were violated in this case. In terms of the five schools of social responsibility, Ford sought to maximize profits.
It did not consider a moral minimum, as it violated even the most minimal of corporate ethics codes. Stakeholders other than shareholders do not appear to have been given much consideration in Ford's decision making process, and clearly there was no demonstration of corporate citizenship for if any citizen were to choose to kill hundreds of people one would presume that act to be criminal.
For whatever reason,…… [Read More]. Kant Essentially Although Kant Believed. He speculates about a "great king' who carried poison that he intended to take in case of capture so that he could not be coerced into acts that would harm his country," but fails to make a final judgment on such a hypothetical situation Timmons, This is a significant example because we should assume that this king would be facing certain death regardless of his actions, and that his reason for killing himself would not be to minimize personal pain, but to maximize overall happiness.
This is a hazy situation for Kant because although the king would be using himself as a means to overall happiness, knowledge of his imminent death would almost demand that he take the poison so that others might not use him as a means to overall depravity.
A second objection to Kant's stance on suicide is even more powerful; it debases the very foundation…… [Read More]. Other stakeholders were not given a voice to participate in the decision- making discourse. Therefore, the principles that were constructed that allowed the executive financial team to make these decisions led to unethical results. Once reviewing these three ethical concepts and using them to analyze the WorldCom scandal, it becomes clear that the actions of WorldCom were unethical.
This was not a matter of simply not understanding the effects their deceitful actions would have, but purposeful deceptive strategies to fool investors and other stakeholders into thinking the company was financially healthier than it truly was. Arguments in Support of this Position: The events of the WorldCom scandal will forever be replayed in business and accounting history, along with the variety of other corporate fraud activities recorded in the late s and early s.
Common to all ethical concepts is the concept of 'good' Darwall, WorldCom's actions…… [Read More]. Against Assisted Suicide There Are.
If the act of killing another is imply universally banned, the definition of ethical action is greatly simplified, and all gray areas are decided on the side of caution. The above areas of concern are very real; there is evidence that non-voluntary euthanasia occurs in other countries where assisted suicide is an accepted medical practice Debate, Mental health is often in issue with chronic diseases and end-of-life care, and determining when people are capable of making the choice of assisted-suicide is an impossible task -- some would even argue that the request itself is evidence of mental unhealthy, and should be interpreted as a request for better care APA, ; True Compassion, John Stuart Mill, who wrote directly and explicitly in opposition to Kant with his Utilitarian ethics, believed that it was only the effects of an action that determined its morality: Happiness Now and Then the.
According to utilitarian ethical theory, a lie would be very moral indeed if it increased someone's happiness without creating detriment to anyone -- telling a child that their unintelligible crayon markings is a great picture of a house, for instance, boosts their self-esteem and helps them to feel loved, and no one in the art world suffers for this white lie.
Utilitarianism also provides a solution to conflicting duties that Kant's theory not only ignores, but actually renders impossible. Given a choice between stealing or starving, Kant's theory would state that the only moral choice would be to starve, as stealing is always an immoral act. According to utilitarianism, however, as long as the person being stolen from would not starve from the loss, the act of not stealing would actually be immoral; the consequences of the theft would be to stop someone from starving, whereas the consequences of not…… [Read More].
Although utilitarianism may provide us with the tools to actually make choices in most situations, these choices would not satisfy the moral demands of most individuals. Meanwhile, attempting to live life by a finite set of rules can often leave individuals in logical dilemmas. Furthermore, both of these all-encompassing moral schemes for choosing appropriate actions suffer from the fact that life occurs at a pace that rarely allows us to sit back and objectively calculate the logical and physical consequences of everything we do.
Fundamentally, this is way most real human beings tend to choose their actions based upon their own, personal set of virtue-ethics. Of course, this is despite the fact that virtue ethics -- as first fully developed by Plato and…… [Read More].
Banking Fees and Morality Integrating Values: Definition of term "Social Responsibility" Application of Social Responsibility Banking fees in one form or another have existed in the United States hundreds of years, however the degree of regulation on the bank fees has varied over time. Regardless of whether banking fees are being regulated liberally or conservatively, legal, ethical, and social responsibility questions arise.
This three value approach assists in analyzing which of the three parties -- the government, the banks, or the consumers -- owe which duty regarding the functionality of the banking fee system. Arguably, all three parties owe a…… [Read More]. Moral Luck" by admitting defeat: The problem is essentially one about ethical judgment, and he begins it with an illustration from Kant. Kant's view of the ethical will, in the quotation offered by Nagel at the outset, is one in which goodness is not determined by "what it effects or accomplishes or because of its adequacy to achieve some proposed end" In other words, goodness is to be located in process, rather than in results.
The reader may find it ironic, then, that Nagel begins his paper by promising us no solution whatsoever -- in his critique of Kantian ethics, Nagel seemingly requires the reader to measure Nagel's own work as a philosopher by the Kantian criterion, of admiring Nagel's will to philosophize without judging him…… [Read More]. Ethical Issues of Capital Punishment. Various objections to capital punishment hinge on religious beliefs. On the other hand, the American justice system does not recognize religious principles.
Capital punishment also raises numerous ethical issues pertaining to the likelihood of errors in its administration. Lethal injection, for example, causes excruciating pain and a slow death from prolonged suffocation instead of instantaneous death if it is performed incorrectly.
If suffering of this nature were considered torture when inflicted purposely, what incidence of error would be enough to prohibit lethal injection altogether on ethical grounds? Finally, does the prospect of erroneous conviction or disproportionate application to the poor or to racial minorities undermine all the other ethical justifications for capital punishment?
The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics. Metaphysics and Its Relevancy to. Besides this, one can, as a separate undertaking, show these people later the way of reasoning about these things. In this metaphysics, it will be useful for there to be added here and there the authoritative utterances of great men, who have reasoned in a similar way; especially when these utterances contain something that seems to have some possible relevance to the illustration of a view.
Consequently, Mercer regards Leibniz as a "conciliatory eclectic par excellence," who was one of a group of teachers and scholars with whom he worked early in his intellectual career, from Plastic Surgery Teen Plastic Surgery: A Controversial Medical Practice According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, in , more than 87, teenagers had cosmetic surgery; and that number has grown exponentially since.
Although aesthetic cosmetic surgery is popular amongst United States teens, physicians and plastic surgeons worry that such invasive surgery on teens' still growing bodies can be dangerous. Other developed countries, including Germany and Australia, are considering banning all but medically necessary plastic surgery for anyone under the age of However, the question remains, if such a measure were taken like that in the United States for minors stem the tide of teenagers going under the knife?
This paper will address the controversy associated with teenagers and aesthetic cosmetic surgery in the United States, and the business of plastic surgery for teens, from a legal, ethical, and social responsibility standpoint. Introduction In a country, and dare say…… [Read More]. Philosophy the Murder-Cannabalism of Bernd. Since the events of September 11th, terrorism has been a crucial concern for Americans specifically, and the global society in general.
As Wilkins notes, although it is generally agreed to be justifiable to commit violence in the act of self-defense against aggressors, many of the victims of terrorism are innocent of any crime, and that the question of "collective guilt" must come into play when determining the justification for terrorism.
There is a "distinction between moral guilt and metaphysical guilt which can be explained partially in terms of the difference between the failure to do one's duty and the failure to perform a supererogatory act. We have a duty to mutla aid to other human beings" p. Therefore, it is justifiable to inflict violence upon innocent individuals when this guilt is apparent, such as the case of the plight of the Jews and the aggression of…… [Read More].
Commerce Ever Ethical The Issue. While some firms are content to subscribe to the bare minimum of ethical doctrines, others have pursued a broader stakeholder perspective.
The stakeholder perspective posits that ethics derives from outcomes, which places it squarely in the consequentialist perspective, and that those outcomes be considered from the perspective of all stakeholders Phillips, This represents an advancement on Friedman's theory, since he considered only the perspective of the firm's shareholders.
Friedman's theory was built on the idea that the shareholders have put up their money to invest in the firm and allow management to build it, therefore management is an agent of the shareholder.
The stakeholder perspective recognizes the contribution of all stakeholders. Employees also make an investment in the firm, and that investment may go beyond for which they are compensated.
Customers, suppliers and other groups as well are invested to different degrees. The environment and society at large are…… [Read More]. Business Entities Laws and Regulations Information. Juanita's behavior is clearly in contravention of a normative code of ethics since each of the world's religions proscribe bribery. The Bible, for instance, as does the Koran goes on in depth about the severity of perverting justice and bring officials or any one involved in the jurisprudence sector.
Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is somewhat stickier in application. If Juanita's behavior provides the greatest amount of people in her environment with pleasure, she can, consequently, proceed. Utilitarianism is, however, not so clear in this situation for how do you define and set the limits to providing happiness t o the greatest amount of people. Who are the majority in this case? Are they the employees in Giantcorp and the bribed official as well as recipients who profit from the bribe?
Are they competitors to the company? Are they the specific country? Moral Philosophy Can desires and feelings be in accordance with or contrary to reason?
Are they under the control of, or guided by, reason? Compare, contrast, and critically evaluate the answers of Aristotle and Hume to these questions and their arguments in support of those answers. David Hume is one of the most significant philosophers of the 18th Century.
Hume is skeptical about moral truths, and he ascertains that ethics comes from feelings, and not reason. Hume argues that moral judgments are founded on sentiment, feelings of disapproval or approval and not reason. He furthers ascertains that feelings and desires are independent of reason. According to Hume, reason handles the connection of concepts or matters of fact.
An examination of common moral evils discloses neither links of concepts nor matters of fact, but only sentiment Hume To confirm that desires and feelings are not in accordance with reason, and…… [Read More].
Managerial Social Responsibility - Volkswagen Diesel Scandal In , Volkswagen was accused of installing secret software in its engine management computers to cheat strict fuel economy and emissions tests. In order to determine the ethical decision Volkswagen should have made, one can use ethical decision-making models, such as: Though these four models use different approaches, one or more of them can result in a justified recommendation for the correct ethical decision that Volkswagen should have made.
Facts Underpinning the Ethical Dilemma In , Volkswagen was accused of installing secret software in its engine management computers to cheat strict fuel economy and emissions tests. The deception…… [Read More]. Target Geelong Staff Layoffs. Ethical and corporate governance dilemmas Corporation and large enterprises have faced ethical and corporate governance dilemmas due to staff layoffs and redundancy programs. Target Australia is one such brand that has recently faced this dilemma.
Due to increased operating costs and decreasing sales, many in retail and manufacturing industry had to close their operations in developed countries. While such decisions are not easy to make, there are many ethical dilemmas and implications involved in businesses making downsizing decisions. Background In early May, Target started experiencing decreased sales and increasing stocks of unsold products.
This caused the management to initiate a downsizing program in its head office at Geelong…… [Read More]. Kant's View on Euthanasia Is.
Once again, the moral value of the matter in question is proven to be wrong. Therefore, the fundamental principles which need to be taken into consideration when discussing the Kantian ethics are represented by the categorical imperative, humanity and autonomy. The most important value that man needs to respect is life. Just like he will not harm another person's life, he must never harm his own. Annulling one's self means not only annulling your own humanity, but also using it as a means for reaching happiness.
This is wrong, because humanity in all its forms and manifestations should be dealt with as a goal in itself and never as a mere means. It might be argued that happiness is the supreme goal of all the human beings. When life is made only of things which cause misery and it is clear that there is no hope for things to get…… [Read More]. Philosophy and Morality Instructions the Exam Consists.
Be paraphrase verbatim language authors putting quotation marks. You document sources, -text citation footnotes a reference page. Philosophy John Arthur's "Morality, Religion, and Conscience," A concern on the relationship between morality and religion is an ancient argument that continues in philosophy in the present times. The argument is mainly on whether morality emanates from an institution or religious background. Theologians in their numbers provide unwavering support the argument that a unifying absolute force or God provides universal moral guidance.
The importance of observing morality and religion as independent on one another but related in some way has been argued by other philosophers Lyons John Arthur argues that morality and religion are not interlocking in relevant manners. Arthur argues that morality in independent from religion and religion does not influence moral action. It is his contention…… [Read More]. Euthanasia Pro Debates Regarding the. He argues that if society were to allow the terminally ill to commit suicide, then it would be a small step to allow other members of society -- like the handicapped -- to do so as well.
This is not a completely trivial argument for two reasons: Yet, Otremba is willing to concede that passive euthanasia may, sometimes, be permissible; this, however, only under the conditions of extreme suffering and impending death. Fundamentally, it is a precarious moral position to contend that each and every human life demands society's active preservation.
Otremba, and many others,…… [Read More]. Outsourcing From an Employee and Corporate Perspective. The researcher proposes that outsourcing is morally and ethically an objectionable practice, that results in little benefit to the company and much harm to the employees it affects. A formal review of the literature available with regard to outsourcing is analyzed, and the case against outsourcing is made.
The researcher shows how outsourcing impacts workers in a negative manner, goes against the moral and ethical standards inherent in business and proves that outsourcing will ultimately result in dissatisfaction for corporations in the long-term.
Introduction From a moral and ethical standpoint, outsourcing is wrong and has negative consequences on both employees and the productivity and efficiency of corporations in the long-term.
From a practical standpoint, corporations that rush to outsource job functions realize few returns on their investment and…… [Read More]. Kant Mill and Aristotle. Ethical Theory The author of this report has been asked to answer several questions about noted ethicists and philosophers. There will also be coverage of both of those as they pertain to happiness, good, evil and utilitarianism.
The people that will be covered in these answers include Mill and Kant. When it comes to Mill, there will be a definition of happiness as well as what is meant by something or someone being intrinsically good or evil. As it relates to Kant, there will be the question of whether it is ever morally acceptable under Kantian ethics to lie to patients so as to not cause them psychological harm. Finally, there will be the question of whether it is practical or possible to combine utilitarianism and ethics of care.
While some ethical questions about healthcare are cut and dry and have a fairly to very obvious answer, there are most…… [Read More]. Animal Rights the Roles of. Two main aims of the zoos are highlighted by the author in the article.
Firstly, zoos provide the environments that are suitable and represent some level of wilderness. Secondly, the zoos must provide entertainment to the visitors.
But the zoos have been criticized by the author. One of the most important facts in these cases is the relationship between pornography and zoos as given by the authors. The way animals are represented in the zoos in the pictures has been very much compared with the sexual representation in pornography. From here, it can be realized that the animal representation is very offensive. Another important fact that has been highlighted by the author is that the zoos are failing to provide the correct education about the life of the animals.
The main education that is now being provided by the zoos to the visitors is that the animals have been captivated…… [Read More]. Everybody has the right of existence, justice and fairness. However, there are occasions when a prisoner cannot be offered the right of confidentiality and privacy. This is exactly what I have done to the inmate in state prison where I am a correctional officer. My paradigm of law does not believe in sincerity of inmates.
Given the history of the prisoner who has deceived twice earlier, I cannot trust him again. Whatever he says or does, it has to be communicated to authorities so that they can take action. The inmates are individuals that have caused harm to the society earlier thus they are in the prison. These people should not be blindly trusted. Beliefs and Personal Values.
Personal Values and Beliefs My personal values and beliefs are based on kindness and compassion. There is a salutary spiritual component of those values and beliefs as well. However, I truly value life in all of its myriad forms. This valuation is increased when it comes to sentient life. I believe that it is best to live in accordance with life and one's surroundings, as opposed to trying to dictate those surroundings and shape them to one's own benefit.
This latter stance is that which is largely propagated via Western culture. However, I believe that the values of kindness and compassion are best actuated by living in accordance with one's surroundings, which is manifested daily in the interactions that one has with other forms of life.
The spiritual aspect of this fledgling belief system is predicated on the notion that there is a universal creator who has engendered existence in…… [Read More]. Death Penalty All indications are that capital offenses are on the rise and the response to this phenomenon has been a cry to impose capital punishment as retribution.
Certainly the issue is one of the most hotly debated in the world today; both for consideration of its humaneness as well as efficacy as a deterrent. For the purposes of this assignment we will examine the issue from both sides with the intent of persuading the reader of the necessity of the death penalty.
The United States legal system currently allows for executions; although not all states practice capital punishment. It is a charged moral issue that regularly invokes heated debates both for and against the death penalty.
Since the inception of executions, ethicists have used religion, emotion and practicality as the basis for their arguments. These character traits or virtues include courage, temperance, justice, wisdom, patience, generosity and compassion. He or she does not possess undesirable or vicious traits of character rown, SPI. The main objections to this philosophy…… [Read More]. As many forms of live donation do not cause harm to others, and as we allow the donation of blood for payment, we violate the categorical imperative by banning the sale of human organs.
It has been argued by some that banning organ donation is within the bounds of Kantian ethics because we have collectively agreed to the conviction that "such a practice would diminish human dignity and our sense of solidarity" Cohen, Yet, we do not prohibit the donation of blood or of bone marrow.
Indeed, most among us would agree that such donations are necessary and beneficial. There is nothing morally wrong about saving lives -- indeed live donations today are conducted voluntarily and without any moral consequence. Allowing live organ donations is ethically consistent with our established principles regarding blood donation and voluntary, unpaid live organ donation.
It will increase the supply of…… [Read More]. Business Ethics Issues a Company's. One lesson from this case might be that laws between entities in different sovereign nations can be much harder to enforce than laws between entities within the same nation. In the future, Pakistan and other nations might want to make sure that their contractual agreements contain mechanisms that make them enforceable across international borders.
On a broader level, another lesson might be that ill-gotten gains should not be promoted by governments in the first place. Those who believe in the supremacy of divine law might consider the position in which Pakistan found herself to be an example of God's reminding us of the obligation to conduct ourselves ethically toward our fellow man.
What about monitoring social networking activities of employees while on the job? Use ethical reasoning in answering these questions. The wide-ranging use of social media in the workplace gives rise to serious moral and ethical concerns. Kantian ethics lays emphasis on the form of an action in ascertaining its morality. Kant insists on the Categorical Imperative.
Kant implies that this ethical principle is the superlative and outright and proper test to morality, whereas imperative implies that from time to time one must command oneself to be moral and undertake the right thing, even and particularly when one's self-centeredness may be infringed by acting ethically Mintz, As an overall moral rule, for an employer to impose into an employee's private life on social media devoid of consent or in a clandestine…… [Read More].
Thus, when a person does use another individual as a means to an end, even in an intimate relationship or in a working environment, that person is acting immorally. Personally, despite oppositions, I would tend to agree with such notions, especially because O'Neill is using the concept of consent as a way to define moral and immoral foundations for social interactions.
Essentially, O'Neill presents a strong defense for the modern interpretation of Kantian ethics. Most of Kantian philosophy has been replaced with more recent philosophical discourse, yet there are some elements that still remain prevalent in modern theory.
She argues how there is still negative connotations and criticism associated with using other individuals, and…… [Read More]. Ethics Business Statistics Christian Worldview.
Will statistics invariably lie? A famous book from the s was entitled How to lie with statistics. Implied by the counter-intuitive name was the concept that the old cliche that 'numbers don't lie' was false. In fact, as discussed in the article "eflection before action: The statistical consultant confronts ethical issues" by S. Andrew Ostapski and Claude. Superville, statistics can be highly subjective in terms of how they are presented as are the conclusions which can be drawn from them.
Even researchers have been accused of manipulating statistics to prove 'facts' that are not true within academia. The pressures only increase when statisticians are asked to serve the financial 'masters' of commerce. Ethics Sterba James P Three. Although Sterba might argue in the long run that the children of all the world's people will be best served by placing limits upon development, it is hard to argue that it is just and fair that members of the developing world may suffer fewer benefits from industrialization because of the developed world's excesses.
Neither the principles of restitutive or distributive justice are really served by either example. The wrongs done to the formerly colonialized peoples of the world are not addressed if they cannot attain parity with those nations that exploited them in a restitutive fashion, and the extent to which the earth must be and has been damaged by environmental harms caused by man to survive in a modern fashion suggests no restitution can be made to the earth from an environmentalist's perspective without an end to human development.
Also, in terms of distributive justice for the greatest…… [Read More]. Ethics in Patents in Amazon One Click. Patents Ethics in Patents in Amazon One Click Patents are meant to protect the intellectual property of the people who apply for them.
They are given when the process is a unique idea, or it offers an improvement to an existing idea that does not infringe on the original patent and is itself unique. The question is not whether patents themselves are ethical, but whether a business requesting a patent for a process, in its entirety, is ethical. People with different philosophical outlooks would see this case very differently. On the one had rule utilitarian's would see the patent rules and judge based on that criteria whereas a natural rights theorist would have a completely different outlook.
This paper looks at the patent application for Amazon's revolutionary "one-click" payment processing through the lens of both a rule utilitarian and a natural rights theorist and determine how a person with that…… [Read More]. The ACA does not by any means fully resolve this, but it makes strides towards addressing this critical issue of morality. The individual mandate is similar -- where the profit of one individual leads to the suffering of another, the suffering takes precedence -- the money is not as important.
Not doing harm to others is the more important imperative, so the sacrifice for the greater good in this case would be the moral course of action according to Kant. Locke Locke's moral philosophy comprises two parts. The first is natural law, in that there are divine laws, they are obligatory and humans can understand these. The second is more hedonistic, that pleasures and pains serve to "provide morality with its normative force" Sheridan, That these two views seem to contrast is well-established and indeed they lead to different interpretations of the key tenets of the Affordable Care Act.
Ethics While all ethical theories appeal to me in some way, the one I relate to the most is utilitarianism. Utilitarianism suggests that the ethical decision should enhance as much happiness as possible. I appreciate this idea, which is why I believe I make more decisions using a utilitarian ethic than any other.
With Kantian duty ethics, I struggle with the absolutism. I do not believe it is possible to have one principle govern every ethical decision that I make. For example, I do believe that sometimes it is acceptable to tell lies. I have told lies to make my parents or girlfriend feel good, and I do not think it hurt them.
In fact, I believe that if they knew now which lies I told and when, they would not even be upset. I would never tell a lie that I could later not admit to, however, I relate…… [Read More]. Right to Live and Die Ethics and Morality. The American Medical Association AMA defines cloning as the "production of genetically-identical organisms via somatic cell nuclear transfer" Fornsworth, Despite its inherent benefits, which include helping sterile couples get an offspring complete with either the father's or the mother's genetic make-up, and creating humans who can readily be organ donors for each other; cloning…… [Read More].
Ethics There are several different ethical perspectives that one can take to evaluate the goodness of actions. Among the leading philosophies are virtue ethics, consequentialism, utilitarianism a specific type of consequentialism and Kantian ethics, specifically universal law. This paper will examine three scenarios in the workplace against these different ethical philosophies. The first scenario is an employee making long distance phone calls on the company dime; the second two employees having sex in the conference room after hours and the third is an employee who drinks excessively at lunch.
Personal Phone Calls Among the schools of normative ethics, virtue ethics is the one that emphasizes moral character Hursthouse, There are two basic ways to look at these phone calls from the virtue ethics perspective. From the employee's perspective, no moral person would steal, because theft is not a virtuous act. If stealing could ever be virtuous, there would need…… [Read More]. Ethical Theory Ethics Given What. Utilitarianism is most often used by healthcare organizations like insurance companies: As unpalatable as the idea may be, no patient can be tested for every single conceivable illness he or she might contract.
There must be some prioritization of high-risk groups. During his or her duties, a nurse may often ration her time, prioritizing where it will do the greatest good for the greatest number of people, based upon the severity of their need. However, in other instances a nurse may need to deploy the categorical imperative and state that something is clearly wrong or right, regardless of a financial calculus.
A nurse must care for all patients to the best of his or her ability and preserve patient autonomy and privacy unless the patient…… [Read More]. Defend the Ethics of Your. If the leaders of our national financial institutions had asked 'are these moral actions right, ethically speaking, from the point-of-view of my profession' rather than 'will these moral actions make money,' the world financial crisis would never have occurred.
Utilitarianism also tends to deemphasize minority rights -- but merely because a group is in the minority does not mean that it is engaged in a moral wrong. This can be seen in the current debate over gay marriage. Many people stress that marriage is 'naturally' between a man and a woman, simply because the majority of the population is heterosexual. However, by safeguarding only majority rights, African-Americans and other historically-discriminated against groups would never have been allowed to enjoy the promise of the American dream.
Kantian principles demand upholding the moral integrity of all human beings, regardless of perceived consequences. Exercise for Business Ethics. The answer from last week's problem is considered to be both utilitarian and deontological. The way that it is utilitarian is to encourage the bandits to leave the town alone based on the offering them money. This will maximize happiness and minimize the overall amounts of suffering.
In the situation with the town, the offer of money is designed to achieve the greatest amounts of happiness and suffering.
This is accomplished by encouraging them never to return through the large financial rewards that are provided. Once the bandits agree to accept this offer is when there will be a transformation in the attitudes of the citizens. This is significant in highlighting how our approach is taking this aspect of ethical thinking and using it to…… [Read More].
Values and Ethics in the Workplace Values. Values and Ethics in the Workplace Values and Ethics in the Workplace Values and ethics in the workplace can be extremely different among various jobs, careers, companies and organizations, ages, races, and ethnic groups, cultures and parts of the world, office environments, and the individual employees themselves. For example, a secretary in the administrative office of a Catholic church, a poor and illiterate factory worker in India, and a stockbroker who works as a managing partner in a prestigious firm would all hold different and maybe even opposing morals.
The secretary would probably be opposed to working on a Sunday so that she had the time to attend church, while the stockbroker would feel compelled to work even on Sunday so that he did not feel lazy and unmotivated, and the factory worker would not have the option of making such a decision as he would have to work every…… [Read More]. Business Ethics and Morality Many in the. Business Ethics and Morality Many in the business and sociology fields have attempted to separate the ideas of ethics and morality from religious beliefs.
Researchers have worked hard at identifying the principles which hold our societies together from the viewpoint which identifies the common good, or the well-being of the individual or organization as the foundation of moral or ethical behavior.
However, this humanistic approach to morality voids the central thesis of what makes moral decisions important, and possible. Moral decisions are based on a code of behavior which lies specifically outside ourselves, and is focused on building a common good on the basis of a moral understanding which is defined, and unchanging.
Regardless of how broad a sociological perspective one takes, when morality is separated from an unchanging definition of right and wrong, the foundation changes from rock to sand, only waiting for the next sociological revolution to come…… [Read More]. After witnessing the suffering of his daughter Tracy through numerous invasive and minimally effective procedures, Latimer eventually decided to take his child's life Eckstein For doing so, he was convicted of homicide and although the case was tried in , it still presents a number of troubling ethical challenges to medical ethicists today.
From a deontological or Kantian point-of-view, or the notion that one must behave as if setting a moral law for all time, Latimer's actions are immoral if it is assumed that intentional killing is always wrong, particularly of a disabled person who is not in full possession of his or her ability to determine if he or she is happy or not.
A Kantian would ask the question -- if…… [Read More]. Business Ethics How important is an individual's privacy in the workplace? Is an individual's privacy in the workplace the most important consideration to be taken into account?
Do the goals and the mission of the organization supersede an individual's desire to protect his or her privacy? Is it ethical for an employer to collect and disperse personal information from employees without their knowledge? How does the philosophy of utilitarianism play into this issue? This paper delves into those questions and provides supporting information for the resolution of this issue.
After careful review of the textbook for this course, after reviewing additional scholarly resources and taking into consideration a utilitarian approach to this issue -- and after researching the Australian laws regarding workplace privacy -- this paper takes the position that an individual's privacy is indeed vitally important and must by law be protected …… [Read More].
The Medicine of Ethical Care. Kantian Ethics in Medicine There is little doubt that the nurse did not do the right thing in reassuring the mother about her baby that slept through feeding time. What the nurse did was withhold valuable information about the health and livelihood of that newborn.
The mother has a right to such information, and she has a right to it immediately. She should not have to take legal action or go through some form of documentation to ascertain these facts. Instead, she should be able to simply get that information by asking the nurse who is aware of the baby's lapse in breathing. From this perspective, the nurse is not fulfilling her job because she is not imparting this valued information to the person who needs to know this information more than anyone in the world: Ergo, the nurse did not do the correct thing…… [Read More].
Nursing and Ethics the Emotional Debate Over. Nursing and Ethics The emotional debate over abortion had been mischaracterized in the media, and hence disrupted any positive attempt to make progress in resolving the ethical and medical problems which have been created by the practice. A majority of Americans recognize and desire that abortion should be available when the life of the mother is at risk, or in the cases of rape or incest. However, liberal proponets like to expand this definition under the ubiquitous definition of the 'mothers health' which has been used to justify abortion on demand, for any reason.
This latter expanded definition is significantly opposed by a majority of the ameircan population. In the midst of this struggle, comes the person needing medical care, who has neither been properly informed as to the dangers of the paractive, nor adequately counseled as to the options which exist regarding the future of her unborn child.
Business Ethics Export Capital for. However, the issue is more nuanced -- what if, as a humanitarian effort, a pharmaceutical company sold recently expired drugs at very low cost to an impoverished developing nation in the grips of an epidemic? In this case, a utilitarian calculus would support such exchanges. The balance between the benefit of being cured or not starving to death and potential harm of bad drugs or food would suggest such a donation was ethical.
From a Rawlsian point-of-view, imagining whether you were the producer or the consumer, it seems likely that 'you' the consumer would take a risk of eating safe but recently stale rice to avoid starvation, much like a producer would be happy to gain good publicity and unload goods that cannot be sold in the U.
Everyone, in short,…… [Read More]. Business Ethics Drucker's approach to business ethics revolves around the belief that business people are rational actors who, as agents for the shareholders, will evaluate all decisions on a cost-benefit basis. His view of business builds upon and only somewhat contrasts with that of Milton Friedman, who in famously espoused that the "social responsibility of business is to increase its profits.
Although Friedman's editorial has been distilled into its pithy headline, his view on the subject of business ethics was complex. Friedman viewed business managers -- executives -- under the agency theory whereby they would be accountable only to the shareholders. Under this view, managers would and should only focus on enhancing shareholder wealth as the underlying philosophy of their actions. Friedman allowed, however, that the actions under this…… [Read More].
Corporate Roles in Environmental Ethics. In turn, this complexity is driven by an increasing understanding of sustainability, going "green," and bringing ethical and moral philosophy into the business community. Francois Barrault, CEO, BT Global Services, said that by supporting sustainability his company hoped not only to reduce its carbon footprint but also to attract younger people who prefer to work for environmentally and socially responsible companies.
He didn't always think that way, though. Barrault said that when he first met former U. Professional Platform for Ethics and Leadership. The concept of ethical leadership has been addressed in the literature of a wide variety of fields associated with the health care profession but none have been able to clearly define its terms. The purpose of this paper will be to examine what ethical leadership means to me and how my personal viewpoints and attitudes have been affected by my background and experience.
Primary Influences Having been raised in an Irish family my Irish heritage is an important aspect in the formation of my ethical viewpoint. Although I have lived in the United States for nearly forty years, I cannot escape the lessons and values that I learned growing up in the Irish countryside. My family lived in an Irish…… [Read More].
Business Ethics the Organization Should Take a. Business Ethics The organization should take a position that it is okay to pursue its actions on the issue. Hartman makes the point that the business, and the people within the business, should follow a path that emphasizes selfishness. This selfishness is an expression of individual liberty and should not be constrained by the wishes of others, so long as the actions do not harm others. Given that actions are apt to have unpredictable and unknown outcomes, the only reasonable response is either to never do anything, or to do what you need to do.
The company should have, however, an ethical code that helps to guide decisions. It not reasonable that the organization should approach a complex ethical dilemma with an ad hoc system of solutions, but rather it should focus on developing a system by which managers within the company should know what their course of action…… [Read More]. KANT Deontological ethics suggests that there are certain moral principles which are so important that one should follow them as if setting a moral law for all time.
Kant formulated his categorical imperative to suggest that there are some transcendent moral laws that are applicable to all situations, and cannot be waived no matter how dire the consequences Kant and business ethics, , S. Anticipated positive consequences, according to deontological ethicists, do not excuse immoral or questionable behavior. Kant's ethical notions contradict many accepted notions of firm behavior. For example, it is largely accepted that an organization has an obligation to make a profit to enrich its shareholders.
Some business ethicists consider it immoral to take shareholder money and use it to engage in ethical initiatives because that is using other people's investment capital to satisfy the manager's own personal sense of morality. In Kant's view, however, if every entity…… [Read More]. Pinto Ethics Deontological and Utilitarian. Legally, forcing Ford to make costly payments to the families of the victims of its maleficent inaction was good for society as well as for the individuals who were harmed.
Only by increasing the hazardous potential of financial loss from acting immorally can the tort system truly protect consumers. Even in utilitarian ethical calculations, forcing Ford to make costly payments to victim's families makes acting as Ford did in the Pinto case 'wrong' even in terms of corporate profitability analysis as the company is potentially harming the profit margins of shareholders as well as unwitting drivers. Of course, it could be argued that such an ethical rationale is undeniably influenced by the current litigious environment -- few companies would feel, in today's environment that they could…… [Read More].
While John may choose to use such guidelines as a barometer for his personal behavior, there is no stipulation that he need do so. So, John needs to decide this issue from own perspective and according to his own needs, desires, and expectations; in other words based on his own personal sense of ethics.
Ethics can be simply defined as the moral principles that should direct a group or a person's behavior Williams, According to Williams the divisions in Western philosophy divide the notion of ethics into three different types: The Aristotelian notion that virtues such as generosity, honesty, justice, charity, etc.
The Kantian notion that humans…… [Read More]. Kant Deontological Ethics -- Also. In the instance of a Poker game, it is a game that relies upon lying or "bluffing" so it actually does pass Kant's universal law test. Kant would probably not take issue with the game of Poker because it is a game that needs the aspect of bluffing in order to work. But, if we want to use the example and examine it purely from a Kantian perspective on lying, then we must consider that people are acting from a means approach and not an end approach and all of the players have the same intention in mind -- to wind the game -- and…… [Read More].
The Theories of Ethics as Depicted in Movies. Movie Analysis and Ethics Theories Application The daily operations of organizations across the globe is faced and directed by the ethical decisions that they make and the ethical approach that they use as a culture will determine the end result of their performance and their stability. Art has always helped in imitating real life and movies often depict the actual happenings within corporations that are hailed as the top corporations in the society, and from such depictions teach the same society lessons they never knew about the corporations.
This paper takes a keen look at two movies, 'Wall Street ' and 'Michael Clayton' and the association between these movies and the ethical theories or approaches that are available. Wall Street original Plot The movie rotates around two central characters; Gordon Gekko and Bud Fox and the daily undertakings they have in the business arena.
Fox is depicted as a…… [Read More]. The Ethics of Offshoring. Outsourcing and offshoring are two means by which a business can reduce its costs, and these tactics can also have strategic advantages as well. However, they also typically come at a cost, in particular to workers in industrialized nations. Offshoring in particular has become a political issue as well, cited as a reason for the decline of the middle class.
This paper will look at these related issues through a number of different ethical lenses. Outsourcing is the process of hiring a third party firm to perform tasks that were once performed in-house. Offshoring is the moving of a business function to another country. The processes that are driving globalization -- the regionalization of production, trade agreements, dramatically improved global communication networks -- have also led to increase in offshoring in particular.
Outsourcing's growth is similarly related. Many business functions are so routine that there is no need for in-house…… [Read More]. Deidre Mccloskey the Bourgeois Virtues. Actions must be directed towards the common good, not just toward the profit of the corporation. The Malden Mills plant dramatically increased production after Feuerstein's benevolence.
She thought it made no sense to rely upon a rule-based ethics which commanded a particular course of action for any situation on the basis of universal principles applicable…… [Read More].
There exists a dilemma here, with respect to the role of corporate actors within our society -- do they serve to increase profits only, or are they bound by a different morality? The role of business in society has to be understood in the context that a business is not an entity capable of action, no matter what the purpose of its formation was. A business, ultimately, is a group of resources, including people, and those people are not separate from society as a whole -- indeed, they are society as a whole.
The principles of both consequentialism and Kantian morality are applied to the problem of fair trade and it is determined that despite the enduring popularity of the "corporations are engines for profit" mentality, it is a view that is at odds with the prevailing ethics of our society, while the distributive justice…… [Read More].
Bioethics C, specifically analytical skill building, knowledge acquisition and practical application. The samples demonstrate achievement by presenting excerpts from submitted assignments, Discussion and Seminar interactions, interactions with the instructor and reflections on progress mastering central concepts, ideas and perspectives in bioethics. This work demonstrates a progression from identification, synthesis and recapitulation of selected relevant ethical systems, placing those systems in the contexts through which they arose, and applying those precepts to emerging controversies in modern life.
The underlying benchmark this presentation attempts to demonstrate is that if learning is indicated by a change in behavior, then my implementation of new methods considering bioethical dilemmas and also improved critical reasoning and research methods, indicates learning over this process of course inquiry. This process has provided a structural framework that translates directly to my work…… [Read More].
Ethical Analysis of Satyam Scandal. Best Ethical Approaches and Alternatives Frankly, the Satyam case is not one that requires splitting the proverbial hairs sometimes associated with more complex ethical analyses.
Unfortunately, the magnitude of the harm caused and the vast numbers of individuals detrimentally affected by aju's subterfuge absolutely defies any conceivable ethical solution that relies on restitution or compensation to the victims. In the Satyam case, aju would not benefit from any of the ethical systems considered. Act utilitarian ethical analysis would condemn aju's actions simply by virtue of their consequences on the countless victims of his conduct.
Justice-based ethics would condemn aju's conduct because it violated both objective ethical principles and the formal rules governing…… [Read More]. Decision on Abortion of a Deformed Fetus. Fetal Abnormality and Decision Making In the case sturdy presented, the fetus with physical abnormalities and down syndrome is surrounded by four people who want to make decision on the possibility of keeping or terminating the life. The first person is the doctor who presents the facts as they are and advices on medically assisted abortion as a viable and scientifically accepted option and wants Jessica to make a choice depending on what she feels like despite the moral questions raised by the relatives and the husband.
This is an argument derived from the postmodern approach to medicine where the individual choices are determined by the patient himself having known all the factors surrounding their condition.
The pro-choice advocacy has been in the limelight over the last decade and the direction of the pregnancy has been argued to be the absolute choice of the mother Pro-Choice Action Network, The metaphysics of morals translated by Mary Gregor. Pearson Custom Publishing; 1st edition. Bentham's Utilitarian Critique of the Death Penalty. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 74 3 , Retributivism and the Death Penalty. The University of Toronto Law Journal, 30 4 , Locke on Punishment and the Death Penalty.
Philosophy, 68 , The British Medical Journal, 1 , References Author Not Available. February 7, Lambert, Bruce. A Non-Governmental Organization Perspective. Office of Publications; Department of Labor, A very short introduction. Groundwork of the metaphysic morals. Classical and contemporary readings.
Retrieved on August 24, , from the Web site: Recalling consumer products -- a guide for industry. Retrieved April 26, from http: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. General principles of forensic report writing. Aust Psychiatry, 34 6 , Rising to the human rights challenge in compulsory treatment - new approaches to mental health law in Australia. Ethics and the Structures of Healthcare.
Healthcare Ethics, 9 A Method of Moral Problem Solving. Kennedy Institute Of Ethics Journal, 7 2 , Ethics and Rights View Full Essay. Retrieved July 16, , from http: The Market and Business n. Retrieved July 17, from www. Retrieved July 17, , from http: Making sense of human rights: Philosophical reflections on the universal declaration of human rights.
Univ of California Press. Ethics in an Emergency View Full Essay. Upper Saddle River, N.
Kantian ethics is a method of interpreting what one 'ought' to do, which was devised by Immanuel Kant - it is a duty-based theory and therefore, duty has a huge part to play within it.
Ethics is the conscious reflection on our moral beliefs targeting to improve, extend, or refine those beliefs in some way. Kantian moral and Utilitarianism theories attempt to respond to the ethical nature of human beings. Immanuel Kant's deontological ethical theory evaluates if actions are moral based on the person's will or intention of acting.
Kantian Ethics Essay Kantian ethics functions as the most feasible especially in the definition of individual duty in ethical situations. Kant’s ideas are considered vague and rigid, but they function efficiently and with ease in most situations. Ethics essay – Kantian ethics a.) Explain Kant’s concept of duty Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher who was concerned with producing an ethical theory that was logical and absolute, and did not change depending on the situation, countering the views of .
ETHICS -- EXPLANATION question -- Explain the place of duty within Kantian Ethics -- This is an essay I wrote for my A-level Ethics class -- I recieved an A for this Piece. Free Kant papers, essays, and research papers. Kant´s Philosophy of Ethics - In the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Immanuel Kant proposes his philosophy of ethics.