Besides the fibres, pulps may contain fillers such as chalk or china clay ,  which improve its characteristics for printing or writing. The pulp is fed to a paper machine where it is formed as a paper web and the water is removed from it by pressing and drying. Pressing the sheet removes the water by force; once the water is forced from the sheet, a special kind of felt, which is not to be confused with the traditional one, is used to collect the water; whereas when making paper by hand, a blotter sheet is used instead.
Drying involves using air or heat to remove water from the paper sheets. In the earliest days of paper making, this was done by hanging the sheets like laundry; in more modern times, various forms of heated drying mechanisms are used. On the paper machine, the most common is the steam-heated can dryer. The paper may then undergo sizing to alter its physical properties for use in various applications. Paper at this point is uncoated.
Coated paper has a thin layer of material such as calcium carbonate or china clay applied to one or both sides in order to create a surface more suitable for high-resolution halftone screens. Uncoated papers are rarely suitable for screens above lpi. Coated or uncoated papers may have their surfaces polished by calendering. Coated papers are divided into matte, semi-matte or silk, and gloss. Gloss papers give the highest optical density in the printed image. The paper is then fed onto reels if it is to be used on web printing presses, or cut into sheets for other printing processes or other purposes.
The fibres in the paper basically run in the machine direction. Sheets are usually cut "long-grain", i. Continuous form paper or continuous stationery is cut to width with holes punched at the edges, and folded into stacks. All paper produced by paper machines as the Fourdrinier Machine are wove paper, i.
Textured finishes, watermarks and wire patterns imitating hand-made laid paper can be created by the use of appropriate rollers in the later stages of the machine. Wove paper does not exhibit "laidlines", which are small regular lines left behind on paper when it was handmade in a mould made from rows of metal wires or bamboo.
Laidlines are very close together. They run perpendicular to the "chainlines", which are further apart. Handmade paper similarly exhibits "deckle edges", or rough and feathery borders. It is estimated that paper-based storage solutions captured 0. Paper is often characterized by weight.
In the United States, the weight assigned to a paper is the weight of a ream, sheets, of varying "basic sizes", before the paper is cut into the size it is sold to end customers. The weight of a ream therefore depends on the dimensions of the paper and its thickness. Most commercial paper sold in North America is cut to standard paper sizes based on customary units and is defined by the length and width of a sheet of paper.
The ISO system used in most other countries is based on the surface area of a sheet of paper, not on a sheet's width and length. It was first adopted in Germany in and generally spread as nations adopted the metric system.
The largest standard size paper is A0 A zero , measuring one square meter approx. A1 is half the size of a sheet of A0 i. A2 is half the size of a sheet of A1, and so forth. Common sizes used in the office and the home are A4 and A3 A3 is the size of two A4 sheets.
Paper may be classified into seven categories: Much of the early paper made from wood pulp contained significant amounts of alum , a variety of aluminium sulfate salts that is significantly acidic. Alum was added to paper to assist in sizing ,  making it somewhat water resistant so that inks did not "run" or spread uncontrollably. Early papermakers did not realize that the alum they added liberally to cure almost every problem encountered in making their product is eventually detrimental.
Documents written on rag paper are significantly more stable. The use of non-acidic additives to make paper is becoming more prevalent, and the stability of these papers is less of an issue. Paper made from mechanical pulp contains significant amounts of lignin , a major component in wood.
In the presence of light and oxygen, lignin reacts to give yellow materials,  which is why newsprint and other mechanical paper yellows with age. Paper made from bleached kraft or sulfite pulps does not contain significant amounts of lignin and is therefore better suited for books, documents and other applications where whiteness of the paper is essential. Paper made from wood pulp is not necessarily less durable than a rag paper. The aging behavior of a paper is determined by its manufacture, not the original source of the fibers.
Mechanical pulping yields almost a tonne of pulp per tonne of dry wood used, which is why mechanical pulps are sometimes referred to as "high yield" pulps.
With almost twice the yield as chemical pulping, mechanical pulps is often cheaper. Mass-market paperback books and newspapers tend to use mechanical papers. Book publishers tend to use acid-free paper , made from fully bleached chemical pulps for hardback and trade paperback books. Most paper companies also plant trees to help regrow forests. Conventional bleaching of wood pulp using elemental chlorine produces and releases into the environment large amounts of chlorinated organic compounds , including chlorinated dioxins.
Dioxins are highly toxic, and health effects on humans include reproductive, developmental, immune and hormonal problems. They are known to be carcinogenic. Some manufacturers have started using a new, significantly more environmentally friendly alternative to expanded plastic packaging. Made out of paper, and known commercially as PaperFoam, the new packaging has mechanical properties very similar to those of some expanded plastic packaging, but is biodegradable and can also be recycled with ordinary paper.
With increasing environmental concerns about synthetic coatings such as PFOA and the higher prices of hydrocarbon based petrochemicals, there is a focus on zein corn protein as a coating for paper in high grease applications such as popcorn bags.
Also, synthetics such as Tyvek and Teslin have been introduced as printing media as a more durable material than paper. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Paper disambiguation. Paper machine and papermaking. Paper size , Grammage , and Paper density. Bank paper Banana paper Bond paper Book paper Coated paper: Environmental impact of paper and Deforestation.
A Treasury for Typophiles. The World Publishing Company, Skyhorse Publishing, , p. If none of the points below are suitable for you, you can just get inspiration from them by seeing how topics for a research paper high school should look. Using the items from our list as an example will lead you to finding a perfect issue for investigation.
The research paper topics for high school below are suitable for both freshman and senior students. Choose the one you need according to the discipline and time you have for implementing the task. We tried to divide research paper topics for high school students into the following categories: So, try to refrain from focusing only on easy research paper topics for high school. We wish you inspiration and good luck! Where does country music come from?
History of developing arts on borderlands between Mexico and the US. What is the origin of sin according to the Bible? Which event can be regarded as the most meaningful? Which of the three branches of government is the most powerful and why? What roles do prehistoric visual communications play for the development of language? How are jails distinguished from prisons?
How do those differences reflected on the treatment to prisoners? What is the effect of tree size on the level of soil moisture? What can be counted as good teaching and why? Evolution of the telescope: Compare anti-nationalism movements in New York with those existing in Hong Kong, China check out the whole compare and contrast research paper. Greenhouse effect boosts global warming: How have social services evolved in the Bahamas, and what steps should be taken first to enhance them further?
How did Theodore Roosevelt perform as a military leader? Is 21 a perfect age for legal alcohol drinking? Should this age be lowered? Which of the most meaningful technological innovations in mechanical engineering have been introduced recently? How was the chivalric code invented? Did it work in Medieval Europe? How climate has influenced the development of Europe. What steps should a government take to provide people with disabilities with high-quality education?
How to reduce the involvement of violence in sports? How are the problems of racism described in media of the USA, including TV shows, animation, and movies? What are the specificities of educating Indian teenage boys? The role of women at the beginning of the 20th century in Europe. The flaws of the American prison system. The development of cryptography in the USSR. How can storing radioactive waste in the United States affect prolificacy?
How to act like a leader during times of change?
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Free high resolution textures, backgrounds and patterns. Sorted by categories, colors and tags. Free for commercial and personal use. Simple rules no credit required. High School Research Paper Topics You Shouldn’t Pass By Posted on November 7, by EssayShark Writing research papers is a wearying process, and even more so when you don’t have a specified topic.