This fact, however, opens the doors to the development of potentially serious psychological problems. Sometimes, when one talks about social media use in these times, it is almost easy to forget that one is not talking about a drug, due to the fact that the language used when talking about one is often similar to the language used when talking about the other.
There is the problem of addiction , for example. As Elgan has put the matter, for example:. Social networks are massively addictive. Most people I know check and interact with the social sites constantly throughout the day. And they have no idea how much actual time they spend on social media. If you're a social media addict, and your addiction is getting worse, there's a reason for that: In short, people get hooked on social media, and then they just keep increasingly coming back for more.
Comparing this kind of social media to usage is something more than just a metaphor. As David Foster Wallace has made clear through his novel Infinite Jest , addiction in the modern world can take many forms: That novel was written before the advent of social media, and it is a shame that Wallace is no longer around to provide a commentary on this new social and cultural phenomenon.
What is clear, though, is that an addiction is conceptually when: In this context, it is clear that one can, and that many people do, get addicted to social media. It is now worth turning to the connections between social media use and the psychological phenomena of anxiety and depression. Social media essentially provide platforms through which people look at and comment on each other lives, often at all times and often without any of the social responsibility that one might exert within one's own physical, everyday life.
This is an inherently anxiety-generating situation, insofar as one of the main causes of anxiety is the realization that is one being seen as an object by others, and that one must take care to make the right impression at all times. Of course, this is a dynamic that is a natural part of social interactions in general. However, the dynamic is heightened exponentially on social media platforms, due to the fact not only that one is never entirely sure who is watching one's performance, but also that it is so easy to make a serious faux pas at any time, and often due to simply technical reasons.
Another social anxiety triggered by online media is the fear of missing out; pictures of a party where the user was not invited, or yet another wedding they weren't able to attend thanks to their grueling work schedule can take a toll on self-esteem, say mental health specialists.
Of course, part of the irony here is that the more time that one spends on social media watching other people live, the less time one has to actually generate one's own new and valuable experiences within the real world. The anxiety produced by the fear of missing out is thus a kind of self-perpetuating snare, since the more time one spends on social media cultivating this fear, the more likely one actually is to be missing out on actual life.
This kind of downward spiral is also characteristic of all forms of addiction; and this kind of anxiety thus provides good evidence that it is legitimate to speak about fixation to social media as a very real form of addiction. Extended use of social media is also known to cause depression in users. To a large extent, this is because people on social media have a tendency to compare the images of other people's lives—almost always positive, due to the natural dynamics of self-presentation—to the messy, often less-than-perfect nature of their own realities.
This comparison produces depression, since social media users begin to believe that everyone else is much happier and having much more fun than they are see Konnikova. Of course, there is a deep fallacy present here: It is an epistemological mistake to compare images to realities; rather, it is obvious that images should be compared to images, and realities to realities.
However, this is exactly the kind of cognitive delusion that social media is exceptionally good at promoting. And insofar as one is immersed in social media at all times, one will become increasingly incapable of keeping a frame of reference that enables one to view reality in a more objective way. This leads into the more general sociological and phenomenological point that social media often degenerates into a dance of images and words within the context of a purely abstracted space—a space that becomes increasingly dissociated from the actual world in which people live and act within their bodies.
As Agbisit has pointed out, this raises serious questions about what real and meaningful action may consist of within the context of the contemporary world. This is related to the problem of depression, insofar as one of the key features of depression is the sense that it is impossible to act to change or improve one's life — that due to either psychological or emotional or sociological factors, one is trapped within one's situation, and that nothing can be done about this state of affairs.
Insofar as social media has a tendency to catalyze this kind of passive and abstracted state of consciousness, it is easy to see how it can be implicated as a serious cause of depression among users. Thus far, the point has been made that the way that many people use social media is reflective of the phenomenon of addiction in not just a metaphorical but rather in a fully literal way. That is, people use social media in a pattern that is marked by them becoming increasingly hooked to the platforms, to the point that they check the platforms almost perpetually over the course of their days; and this use can produce negative psychological consequences, including anxiety and depression.
In this context, the obvious recommendation that could be made is that people should cut back on their social media use, or at the very least become more mindful of their usage of social media and monitor the distinction between social media interactions on the one hand and real life interactions on the other.
Of course, this is easier said than done, given the very nature of addiction: Among other things, the fact that people are becoming increasingly invested in social media would seem to be indicative of the growing poverty of actual social experiences within the real, physical world. That is, if people felt a greater sense of community or belongingness over the course of their everyday lives, then they would perhaps be less likely to addictively look to social media for their "fix" in this regard.
Moreover, it is worth pointing out that the kinds of virtual interactions that characterize social media are strongly antithetical to human nature from an evolutionary biological perspective: Seen from this angle, it is not surprising that social media usage can produce a host of negative psychological consequences: In summary, the present essay has consisted of a discussion of social media addictions and afflictions. It has played a key part in the Arab spring and brought about revolutions in the Middle East.
Social media was also utilized by the campaign of President Barack Obama to organize from a grassroots level which enabled him to go on and win the presidency of the United States. Businesses have also begun to realize the way in which social media can be used for their benefit as individuals can be influenced through these websites.
Due to this fact, social media has become increasingly popular among businesses. As a new technology that reaches out to many young people, who are the main consumers of products, businesses are looking to use social media more often in their advertising and marketing practices. Businesses have also turned to social media marketing as it is the new form of technology that will take precedence over other older forms of technology.
Audiences fast forward through commercials on their DVR players, listen to satellite radios which do not have commercial breaks and no longer read printed newspapers. Businesses can no longer provide exposure to their products with the old way of advertising and have largely been turning to social media because of the advent of the new technology. Businesses may not necessarily want to engage in the social media revolution but do so as to not be left behind.
In order to remain competitive in the modern technological age social media must be used by these businesses or they will be at a disadvantage compared to others. Advertising is not the only arena in which businesses have begun using social media. All facets of a business have been affected:. To be successful, businesses must not just experiment or imitate other entrepreneurs in the use of social media, but come up with new ways to utilize it as well.
One of the main advantages for businesses who utilize social media is the access to more people than was possible with television or newspapers. Businesses are also able to access these people and spend less money than they would have been with older forms of technology, as social media advertising can be bought at cheaper rates. Once a group of people like a page their friends will like it and word will spread like wildfire.
Social media also allows businesses to conduct more effective research about consumer behavior at a cheaper rate.
Rather than pay researchers to research consumer trends, a business can monitor these trends themselves on websites like Twitter or Facebook. Through this research, businesses are better able to gear their advertising to the specific needs of its consumers which allows for better allocation of advertising resources.
Rather than marketing a product to thousands of people out of which only a handful may purchase it, businesses are able to market to specifically the people who would be willing to purchase the product. In this way, businesses increase the chances that their advertising is effective with social media. Although these tools allow businesses to gear the advertising and products closer to consumer preference and behavior, the tools have been accused of invading the privacy of consumers.
This invasion of privacy can have negative consequences upon society as people may begin to feel that they are no longer are seen as individuals but as mere robots who will buy whatever they see posted on their Facebook page.
As Qualman discusses the positive of the social media age come with costs: Consumers may react negatively to an invasion of privacy resulting in a refusal to participate on the website or to purchase the product advertised by the business.
Businesses should learn how to balance their consumer's privacy while at the same time using the advantages provided by the social media age.
Another disadvantage of the social media age is that businesses must change the traditional way in which they have conducted their business. With the advent of social media, businesses must adopt new positions within their organizations, upgrade technology and adapt new marketing strategies. It is also a risky venture to invest money into a new technology that may not be successful. Few emerging web companies will be the next Facebook and have its enduring appeal as websites such as Myspace and Friendster have demonstrated.
Investing money into a social media website that is unsuccessful could be disastrous for businesses attempting to break into a new market. This new found understanding of the influence social media can have on other people is being replicated by other businesses who are changing their business models adjusting and adapting for success. A company such as Pepsi which has been around for decades has also had to evolve with the social media age. Social media is helping Pepsi gain insight about its consumers which it previously has not been able to do with the practices that they had formerly attempted.
The level of commitment towards social media from Pepsi demonstrates how business is shifting towards this new mode of media and away from more traditional advertising techniques. Pepsi recognized that they would be able to reach these amounts of people through social media instead. Rather than utilize other social media websites to promote their product, Pepsi has converted its own website into a social media site.
By allowing users to generate their own content on their site, Pepsi allows its customers to be involved in the marketing of their product. Pepsi recognizes the influence that people can have towards other individuals. While this has been a common conception held among marketing experts, social media demonstrates how much influence our friends and family can have on our buying habits and preferences.
Another company which has changed their business practices to adapt to the social media age is the Ford company. Qualman describes the way in which the company utilized social media to promote their new car. We let them do what they normally do: The user generated social media promotion helped to propel the company forward from some difficult economic struggles. The website generated thousands of views from multiple other social media websites such as Youtube and Flickr. The campaign also helped to sell more Fiestas than anticipated as it exposed the model to more consumers who may have bought other vehicles.
The user generated social media campaign resulted in the Fiesta selling as many if not more models as other more popular vehicle brands which had previously been on the market for longer periods. Ford used a similar model to the Pepsi social media campaign. Rather than advertise on Facebook as other companies had done, Ford created its own website which allowed its consumers to participate in the build of a vehicle.
This concept allowed for: After the success of this campaign Ford continued to make changes to its business model to incorporate more social media in their marketing. Ford recognized the direction the company needed to take as the social media campaign was a resounding success.
However, Google has made attempts to adapt and needs to continue doing so. As social media became more privatized and pursuing profit, Google has been able to place search engine listings on pages like Facebook. Google has also collaborated with Facebook to promote its own products such as Google Chrome Kangas, The collaboration has led to more users using the browser as they have seen their friends using the website.
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Research Outline THE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE. Introduction. Joosten () describes social media as technological systems that are broadly meant for the purpose of collaboration and communication within a community.
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