Doctoral candidates are normally required to have a Master's degree in a related field. Exceptions are based on their individual academic merit. A second and a third foreign language are other common requirements, although the requirements regarding proficiency commonly are not strict. The admissions process varies by institution. Some require candidates to take tests while others base admissions on a research proposal application and interview only.
In both instances however, a faculty member must agree prior to admission to supervise the applicant. Requirements usually include satisfactory performance in advanced graduate courses, passing an oral qualifying exam and submitting a thesis that must represent an original and relevant contribution to existing knowledge.
The thesis is examined in a final public oral exam administered by at least five faculty members, two of whom must be external.
After completion, which normally consumes 4 years, the candidate is commonly awarded the degree of Doutor Doctor followed by the main area of specialization, e. Physics, Chemistry, Biological and Life Sciences, etc. All graduate programs in Brazilian public universities are tuition-free mandated by the Brazilian constitution.
Competition for graduate financial aid is intense and most scholarships support at most 2 years of Master's studies and 4 years of doctoral studies. The normal monthly stipend for doctoral students in Brazil is between and USD. A degree of Doutor usually enables an individual to apply for a junior faculty position equivalent to a US Assistant Professor. Progression to full professorship known as Professor Titular requires that the candidate be successful in a competitive public exam and normally takes additional years.
In the federal university system, doctors who are admitted as junior faculty members may progress usually by seniority to the rank of Associate Professor then become eligible to take the competitive exam for vacant full professorships. In recent years somme initiatives as jointly supervised doctorates e. Denmark offers four levels of degrees: Bachelor of Arts degree ; 2 a five-year candidate's degree e. Doctor Philosophiae , which is the higher doctorate. A three-year extended research program, leading to the magister's degree was phased out to meet the international standards of the Bologna Process.
In the disputation, the candidate defends their thesis against three official opponents as well as opponents from the auditorium ex auditorio. In Egypt, the highest degree doctorate is awarded by Al-Azhar University est. The Medical doctorate abbreviated as M.
It takes on average three to five years. Many postgraduate medical and surgical specialties students earn a Doctorate.
After finishing a 6-year medical school and one-year internship house officer , physicians and surgeons earn the M. They can then apply to earn a master's degree or a speciality diploma, then an MD degree in a specialty. Geriatrics means a doctorate in Geriatrics , which is equivalent to a Ph. The Finnish requirement for the entrance into doctoral studies is a master's degree or equivalent.
All universities have the right to award doctorates. Entrance to a doctoral program is available only for holders of a master's degree; there is no honors procedure for recruiting Bachelors.
Entrance is not as controlled as in undergraduate studies, where a strict numerus clausus is applied. Usually, a prospective student discusses their plans with a professor.
If the professor agrees to accept the student, the student applies for admission. The professor may recruit students to their group. The student must obtain funding either by working in a research unit or through private scholarships. Funding is more available for natural and engineering sciences than in letters. Sometimes, normal work and research activity are combined.
Prior to introduction of the Bologna process, Finland required at least 42 credit weeks 1, hours of formal coursework. The requirement was removed in , leaving the decision to individual universities, which may delegate the authority to faculties or individual professors. The duration of graduate studies varies. It is possible to graduate three years after the master's degree, while much longer periods are not uncommon. The dissertation can either be a monograph or it an edited collection of 3 to 7 journal articles.
Students unable or unwilling to write a dissertation may qualify for a licentiate degree by completing the coursework requirement and writing a shorter thesis, usually summarizing one year of research. When the dissertation is ready, the faculty names two expert pre-examiners with doctoral degrees from the outside the university.
During the pre-examination process, the student may receive comments on the work and respond with modifications. When granting this permission, the faculty names the opponent for the thesis defence, who must also be an outside expert, with at least a doctorate.
In all Finnish universities, long tradition requires that the printed dissertation hang on a cord by a public university noticeboard for at least ten days prior to for the dissertation defence. The doctoral dissertation takes place in public. The opponent and the candidate conduct a formal debate, usually wearing white tie , under the supervision of the thesis supervisor. Family, friends, colleagues and the members of the research community customarily attend the defence. After a formal entrance, the candidate begins with an approximately minute popular lecture lectio praecursoria , that is meant to introduce laymen to the thesis topic.
The opponent follows with a short talk on the topic, after which the pair critically discuss the dissertation. The proceedings take two to three hours. Any member of the public then has an opportunity to raise questions, although this is rare. Immediately after the defence, the supervisor, the opponent and the candidate drink coffee with the public.
Usually, the attendees of the defence are given the printed dissertation. Usually, the candidate invites their family, colleagues and collaborators. Doctoral graduates are often Doctors of Philosophy filosofian tohtori , but many fields retain their traditional titles: The doctorate is a formal requirement for a docenture or professor's position, although these in practice require postdoctoral research and further experience.
Exceptions may be granted by the university governing board, but this is uncommon, and usually due to other work and expertise considered equivalent.
Before three research doctorates existed in France: After , only one type of doctoral degree remained: This diploma is similar in spirit to the older State doctorate, and the requirements for obtaining it are similar to those necessary to obtain tenure in other systems.
Before only professors or senior full researchers of similar rank were normally authorized to supervise a doctoral candidate's work. Today, the doctorate doctorat is a research-only degree. It is a national degree and its requirements are fixed by the minister of higher education and research. Only public institutions award the doctorate. It can be awarded in any field of study. The master's degree is a prerequisite.
The normal duration is three years. The redaction of a comprehensive thesis constitutes the bulk of the doctoral work. While the length of the thesis varies according to the discipline, it is rarely less than pages, and often substantially more. Doctoral candidates can apply for a three-year fellowship. The most well known is the Contrat Doctoral 4, granted every year with a gross salary of euros per months as of September Since candidates follow in-service training, but there is no written examination for the doctorate.
The candidate has to write a thesis that is read by two external reviewers. The head of the institution decides whether the candidate can defend the thesis, after considering the external reviews.
The jury members are designated by the head of the institution. The candidate's supervisor and the external reviewers are generally jury members. The maximum number of jury members is 8. The defense generally lasts 45 minutes in scientific fields, followed by 1 — 2 and a half hours of questions from the jury or other doctors present. The defense and questions are public.
The jury then deliberates in private and then declares the candidate admitted or "postponed". The latter is rare. New regulations were set in and do not award distinctions. The diploma is a first-degree.
Doctorate degrees in Germany are research doctorates and are awarded via a process called Promotion "promotion". The concept of a US-style professional doctorate as an entry-level professional qualification does not exist. However, in medicine, "doctoral" dissertations are often written alongside undergraduate study.
The European Research Council decided in that those Dr. Most doctorates are awarded with specific Latin designations for the field of research except for engineering, where the designation is German instead of a general degree for all fields e.
The most important degrees are:. Over fifty such designations are available, many of them rare or no longer in use. For addressing, the degree is commonly written in front of the name in abbreviated form, e.
Max Mustermann or Dr. Max Mustermann , dropping the designation entirely. However leaving out the designation is only allowed, when the doctorate degree is not an honorary doctorate, which has to be indicated by Dr. Although the honorific does not become part of the name, holders can demand that the title appear in official documents.
The title is not mandatory. The honorific is commonly used in formal letters. For holders of other titles, only the highest title is mentioned. Multiple holders of doctorate degrees can be addressed as Dres. Professional doctorates obtained in other countries, not requiring a thesis or not being third cycle qualifications under the Bologna process, can only be used postnominally, e. In the German university system it is common to write two doctoral theses, the inaugural thesis Inauguraldissertation , completing a course of study, and the habilitation thesis Habilitationsschrift , which opens the road to a professorship.
It is considered as an additional academic qualification rather than an academic degree formally. It qualifies the owner to teach at German universities facultas docendi. The holder of a Habilitation receives the authorization to teach a certain subject venia legendi.
This has been the traditional prerequisite for attaining Privatdozent PD and employment as a full university Professor. With the introduction of Juniorprofessuren —around —as an alternative track towards becoming a professor at universities with tenure , Habilitation is no longer the only university career track. In India , doctorates are offered by universities. Entry requirements include master's degree. Some universities consider undergraduate degrees in professional areas such as engineering, medicine or law as qualifications for pursuing doctorate level degrees.
Entrance examinations are held for almost all programs. In most North Indian universities, coursework duration and thesis is 2 years and in most South Indian universities is 3 years. The most common doctoral degree is Ph. Sc Doctor of Science. Nationally important schools such as Indian Institute of Management ,  National Institute of Industrial Engineering  call their doctoral programmes fellow programmes.
Entry to professional fields such as medicine, dentistry, occupational therapy and physical therapy is at the bachelor's level. They are usually of longer duration than a regular bachelor's degree e. D degree Doctor of Pharmacy takes 6 years. Italy uses a three-level degree system. The first-level degree, called a " laurea " Bachelor's degree , requires three years and a short thesis. The second-level degree, called a " laurea magistrale " Master's degree , is obtained after two additional years, specializing in a branch of the field.
This degree requires more advanced thesis work, usually involving academic research or an internship. The final degree is called a " dottorato di ricerca " Ph.
Alternatively, after obtaining the laurea or the laurea magistrale one can complete a "Master's" first-level Master's after the laurea ; second-level Master's after the laurea magistrale of one or two years, usually including an internship. An Italian "Master's" is not the same as a master's degree; it is intended to be more focused on professional training and practical experience. Graduates in the fields of Education, Art and Music are also called Dr.
Many professional titles, such as ingegnere engineer are awarded only upon passing a post-graduation examination esame di stato , and registration in the relevant professional association. The first institution in Italy to create a doctoral program Ph. Until the s, most natural science and engineering doctorates in Japan were earned by industrial researchers in Japanese companies. These degrees were awarded by the employees' former university, usually after years of research in industrial laboratories.
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What Is the Difference Between a Thesis and a Dissertation? So the main difference between a thesis and a dissertation is the depth of knowledge you must attain in order to write the paper. A masters degree thesis is more closely related to a research paper that you would have completed during college. You are expected only to use the. Dissertation Proposal Outline Most universities offer comprehensive guidelines in their dissertation manuals about how to set up and organize the dissertation and the proposal. In the Social Sciences, most dissertations are .