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Social Responsibility and Research Ethics: Not Either/Or but Both

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❶Science and Engineering Ethics 11 3:

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In order to have a principled company, you must have a principled leadership. Another factor involved in principled leaders is credibility, credibility is " Earning credibility is a daily, uphill journey that has to be continually renewed.

Credibility is something that many of the companies involved in scandals have lost. Getting it back will be either impossible or a tremendous effort. One way to handle the effects of any kind of catastrophe or scandal is to have a crisis management system in place. Crisis management is " At my place of employment, we have an emergency response team in order to respond to any medical, chemical, and hazardous material situation. I think that this is a valid method of crisis management and will help if there is ever any problems in the future.

Another very important area for ethics to be apparent is the medical field. Banja states in his interview that ethics are important because " They come to believe that one ought never appear ignorant, uncertain, hesitant, or wrong. They work hard on convincing themselves and others that they are eminently capable, indeed, outstanding, so that when something like an error does occur, the cognitive dissonance it creates is traumatic because it threatens their self-image.

The public often hears of tragedies that occur on the operating table, such as instruments left inside the body, or wrong limbs operated on. These instances scare people and lead to mistrust. It is essential that physicians maintain ethical standards so that they can maintain the trust that we need to place in them as customers.

With the amount of pollution in the world today it is very important for business to be socially responsible in operation. For instance, my company has its own environmental department, which takes care of any environmental issues that may occur in our daily operations. Another instance of a corporation being ecologically sensitive is the case of Bainbridge Graduate Institute.

Page 1 of 6. Ethics in Business In business today there are many instances of corporations that act from an ethical standard, including the company that I work for. The social responsibility of scientists requires that they also attend to the foreseeable societal impacts of their work, particularly as these impacts affect the safety, health or welfare of the society.

In part that responsibility flows from privileged status. For example, researchers are allowed to carry out experiments as they deem appropriate with relatively little oversight. An exception is research that involves research subjects whose humane treatment, whether laboratory animals or humans, is a responsibility that goes with the privilege and is explicitly expected under the rubric of the responsible conduct of research as well as spelled out in regulations that codify the principles of bioethics.

But the social responsibilities of researchers extend beyond upholding the ethical standards of society. The Uppsala Code of Ethics for Scientists highlights the responsibility of scientists to refrain from, and speak out against, weapons research and other scientific research with the potential for detrimental consequences for the environment, and for present and future generations Gustafsson et al.

Furthermore, researchers' special knowledge that comes from their work, education and expertise enables them to understand the limits of the science and when its application e.

Researchers have a responsibility to oppose the misuse of their work. Moreover, because of their special knowledge researchers are in a position to contribute substantially to public understanding of science and technology, and thereby to a democratic society, by promoting an informed citizenry.

It seems plausible that these larger notions of responsibility underlie the relatively recent addition of discussions of "the scientist as a responsible member of society, contemporary ethical issues in biomedical research, and the environmental and societal impacts of scientific research" NIH as appropriate elements of education in the responsible conduct of research.

While research scandals have been receiving increasing attention in the US, in Europe there has been growing awareness and concern regarding the intended and unintended environmental and societal impacts of technological and scientific advances of which the Uppsala Code is an example.

The European macroethical approach to science ethics education arises from a full-throated declaration of the goals and role of higher education in society. In the last 10 years, as part of an effort to harmonize educational requirements at institutions of higher learning across Europe, an overarching educational framework has been adopted that highlights the widespread and strongly-held European view of social responsibility Bologna Process The framework of qualifications for European Higher Education EHEA includes the expectation that all graduates, including those in science and engineering, "have the ability to gather and interpret relevant data Consistent with the idea that part of the social responsibility of researchers is to contribute to the development of an informed citizenry, the EHEA framework indicates that all graduates are expected to be able to "communicate information, ideas, problems and solutions to both specialist and non-specialist audiences" at the bachelor's level , "communicate their conclusions, and the knowledge and rationale underpinning these [conclusions], to specialist and non-specialist audiences clearly and unambiguously" at the master's level , and "communicate with their peers Educational programs in science ethics in Europe and the US approach the topic from different directions for understandable reasons.

In Europe, the macroethical approach is primary. However, providing "the big picture" is not enough. Trainees need to understand what is expected of them by peers in their field and what they themselves can expect as members of the global research community. At a minimum, this is responsible research conduct: It is noteworthy that the EHEA framework expects that graduates at the doctoral level "have demonstrated the ability to conceive, design, [and] implement The microethical approach in the US is an essential beginning because it fulfills the fundamental educational criterion of starting where people are, in their own environment, acknowledging and validating the foundational ethical principles that underlie the research process.

But it is insufficient because it does not adequately recognize the larger societal context of which research and engineering are a part. James Rest , , Muriel Bebeau and others have shown that moral development can and, with attention and nurturing, does continue throughout formal education as individuals learn about and appreciate their personal and professional role in society as members, professionals, contributors, and citizens. Yet, as employers, students and their families have called for an increasingly specialized education to meet the needs of the modern, technological world, US higher education has moved toward specialization at the expense of "breadth requirements" - that is, the very courses outside the core of science where students might learn about responsible research conduct and other ethical concerns.

At the same time, while it is clear that science and engineering curricula should include stand-alone courses examining the ethical, legal and social policy implications of science and technology, along with responsible research conduct these issues must also be integrated into core courses in the form of modules, problem sets, exam questions and as elements of graduate theses.

Social responsibility and responsible research conduct are the two essential sides of ethical science. Both are necessary for an adequate education in science and engineering. It should be noted that macroethics includes not only collective professional responsibility, but also the decisions made by society about technology. Bebeau, Muriel Can Ethics be Taught? A Look at the Evidence. Journal of the American College of Dentists 58 1: Bologna Qualifications Framework http: The Uppsala Code of Ethics for Scientists.

Journal of Peace Research 21 4: Ways of thinking about and teaching ethical problem solving: Microethics and macroethics in engineering. Science and Engineering Ethics 11 3: The quest for a code of professional ethics: An intellectual and moral confusion.

In Rosemary Chalk, Mark S. Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process, Vol. National Society of Professional Engineers Code of Ethics for Engineers. Moral Development in Young Adults, in R. Kitchener, eds , Adult Cognitive Development.

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Problem The Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility when developing a strategic plan - consider stakeholder needs Ethics paper: write - word paper in which you do the following: explain the role of ethics and social responsibility in developing a strategic plan while considering stakeholder needs and agendas.

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