This interaction, between family members and the students helps promote educational interest and academic achievements. The implications for teachers are that designing IH can help improve a parental involvement, b students' self-concept, and c academic achievement. Parental interest in homework can facilitate student interest, which is crucial for completing homework assignments that require self-directed and self-management strategies Cooper et al.
However, it appeared that elementary students' short attention spans, their inability to successfully complete homework because of its difficulty, students' poor study skills, or lack of a supportive home environment was to blame Cooper, et al, This is important for teachers to understand in order to improve their abilities to design homework that elicits parents' participation and engages students' thinking Warton, Stager examined Piaget's philosophy regarding teachers' and children's problem solving.
Piaget found that as children reason through their mistakes, they construct understandings to complex concepts. When teachers make provisions for engaging students and parents in meaningful dialogue, students learn to reason through tasks and arrive at solutions to problems Warton, This suggests that teachers should design IH assignments to foster students' critical thinking skills and to entice parents to become involved in home learning activities.
The use of constructivist techniques techniques that encourage children to construct their own understandings through interactions with their environments, especially with significant adult figures such as parents and teachers has been recommended for fostering students' abilities to self-manage the completion of their own homework.
Autonomous students are also better able to interact with their parents during the completion of IH to draw their own conclusions and construct their own understandings of home learning activities. Teachers are wise to design homework to incorporate constructivist techniques to foster autonomy, goal setting, self-management or self directness.
Teachers should assign homework subsequent to teacher-parent collaborations, when the teacher is fully aware of children's and parents' backgrounds and fully regards them Auerbach, ; Fagella, ; Taylor, Teachers should also ensure that homework is suitable for diverse populations of students and families.
Teacher training can provide teachers with strategies to help students and parents develop positibve dispositions for home learning activities that are intended to increase parental involvement and student academic outcomes Bailey, Initial training should last from days, with at least 45 hours of follow-up training throughout the following school year. Training sessions can accommodate multiple grade levels, K-3, because strategies are not grade-level specific.
Workshops are intended to train teachers how to:. Because it is important for teachers to consider parents' and children's interests when designing interactive homework assignments Cooper, et al, ; Warton, , teachers should receive recommendations for gathering data regarding family backgrounds and interests using an Interest Inventory Checklist. The checklist can be teacher-made or be copied from teacher resource booklets.
The idea is to determine specific interests of the parent and student audience to increase the likelihood that homework will be completed and that parents will be involved. Interest inventories can also provide pertinent information to assure that homework is suitable for the families in which it is intended.
Workshops should serve to train teachers how to develop strategies that help students learn new vocabulary across the curriculum. Teachers often make the mistake of assigning vocabulary words for reading, spelling, science, social studies, and math separately, which may overwhelm students with the responsibility for "memorizing" the spelling and or definitions to a myriad of new terms.
Creating an integrated vocabulary list of key words can help link content areas and alleviate the pressure of over burdening students with unproductive homework. Training can also help teachers formulate developmentally appropriate inference questions or word problems across the curriculum. Workshops should train teachers to selectively extract questions already found within content area teacher manuals. Teachers can look for questions that require students to a reason through scenarios, b link student matter to home experiences, c justify or explain solutions, and or d create models to apply knowledge.
Many curriculum guides provide provocative questions that involve students in similar activities. Trainings should focus on showing teachers how to select and design inference questions or word problems to include in interactive homework assignments.
The workshops can also provide teachers with research evidence that supports parent involvement in homework. Teaches can use this evidence to encourage parental involvement for increasing academic outcomes and students' self-concepts through the effective design of IH.
Finally, teachers can learn to provide effective verbal and written directions for completing homework for parents and children. Teachers often assign homework at the end of the day or as the bell rings without fully explaining homework directions or objectives. Researchers recommend that teachers involve students in discussions related to the objectives and expected outcomes of the assignments.
Additionally, teachers should write directions and explanations for each assignment in steps so parents and children can interpret how homework is to be completed.
Homework should be assigned in a way that gives the family some flexibility. Allowing for flexibility and providing clear directions serve to improve students self-directness and ability to self-manage their work, and increases the likelihood that homework will be completed.
Journal articles EJ should be available at most research libraries; most documents ED are available in microfiche collections at more than locations. Educational Psychologists, 32, Training teachers to design constructivist reading homework. Dissertation Abstract International, 63 , Childhood Development, 64, Students with learning disabilities: Homework problems and promising practices.
Educational Psychologist, 36 3 , p Parent involvement in schools: Elementary School Journal, 91, A model of homework on the performance evaluations of elementary school students. The Journal on Experimental Education, 69 2 , Overview and comparison with other programs. However, many home schooling families have used HippoCampus content to supplement or guide their home curriculum, and we welcome them as users. Yes, although homeschoolers should realize that the content presented is not a complete course.
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Sep 03, · Homework assignments that require family help can get parents more involved in middle school, a time many parents disengage, a new study finds.
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Homework is a leading factor for improving academic performance among students who have the ability to work independently and adequate parental support to complete homework assignments. When parents are interested in children's homework, students are more likely to successfully complete their assignments. To improve parent involvement, teachers must be trained to design interactive homework. Homework assignments that include interaction with family members improve family involvement ERN Admin Middle-school students participated in a study of interactive science homework for 18 weeks.