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How to Write References on Essays

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Advantages of Specifying References When Writing an Essay

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How to Cite

An alternative format is shown in the example below. Knapper and Cropley Note that in this example reference has been made to a specific point within a very long text in this instance a book and so a page number has been added. This gives the reader the opportunity to find the particular place in the text where the point referred to is made.

You should always include the page number when you include a passage of direct quotation from another writer's work. When a publication has several authors , it is usual to give the surname of the first author followed by et al. Do not forget that you should also include reference to the source of any tables of data, diagrams or maps that you include in your work. If you have included a straight copy of a table or figure, then it is usual to add a reference to the table or figure caption thus:.

Even if you have reorganised a table of data, or redrawn a figure, you should still acknowledge its source:. You may need to cite an unpublished idea or discussion point from an oral presentation, such as a lecture. The format for the text citation is normally exactly the same as for a published work and should give the speaker's name and the date of the presentation. Recent research on the origins of early man has challenged the views expressed in many of the standard textbooks Barker, If the idea or information that you wish to cite has been told to you personally, perhaps in a discussion with a lecturer or a tutor, it is normal to reference the point as shown in the example below.

The experience of the Student Learning Centre at Leicester is that many students are anxious to improve their writing skills, and are keen to seek help and guidance Maria Lorenzini, pers. When using the 'author, date' system, the brief references included in the text must be followed up with full publication details, usually as an alphabetical reference list or bibliography at the end of your piece of work. The examples given below are used to indicate the main principles.

The simplest format, for a book reference, is given first; it is the full reference for one of the works quoted in the examples above. The title of the book should be formatted to distinguish it from the other details; in the example above it is italicised, but it could be in bold, underlined or in inverted commas.

When multi-authored works have been quoted, it is important to include the names of all the authors, even when the text reference used was et al. Humanities graduates in the labour market. The Falmer Press, pp.

Styles and strategies of learning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46, pp. Note that in the last two references above, it is the book title and the journal name that are italicised, not the title of the paper or article.

The name highlighted should always be the name under which the work will have been filed on the library shelves or referenced in any indexing system. It is often the name which is written on the spine of the volume, and if you remember this it may be easier for you to remember which is the appropriate title to highlight. The three examples above cover the most common publication types. You may also wish to refer to other types of publications, including PhD dissertations, translated works, newspaper articles, dictionary or encyclopaedia entries or legal or historical texts.

Simon Simon is the author last name, and is the year. You will need a citation directly after every sentence or group of sentences if you're using the same source for multiple consecutive sentences containing information you didn't think of yourself. As you do research for your essay, take note of all bibliographic information that you see.

If using a book, write down all pertinent information found on the copyright page, including the name of the publisher and the city and year of publication. Publication date is often at the bottom of webpages. Use Notes and Bibliography if instructed.

The Notes and Bibliography NB method is preferred by scholars in the humanities literature, history, arts. NB is conducive to recording a wide range of sources in detail, which the Author Date system doesn't allow for. Leave 2 blank lines between this title and the first entry, and one blank line between entries.

Notes and Bibliography style uses footnotes for page endings and endnotes for chapter endings. The bibliography page will be an alphabetized list of all sources in hanging indent.

An example format for a book is as follows: An example format for a chapter in a print scholarly journal is as follows: Author last name, first name. For an online scholarly journal article, tack on the following at the end: An example format for a website is as follows: When there is no known author, the entry should begin with the title of the document, whether it's a webpage, chapter, article, and so on.

When there are multiple authors, the first listed author appears last name, first name, so that the citation is alphabetized by this author's last name. Subsequent authors are listed by first name, like this: Always end a citation with a period.

Use Author Date if instructed. The Author Date style is preferred by those in the sciences, i. Author Date is a more concise style of documentation. Leave 2 blank lines between this title and the first entry, and 1 blank line between entries. Author Date style bibliographies should be organized alphabetically by last name or by title if no author in hanging indent.

Should I categorize my references into books, websites, journals etc. No, that is not necessary. All of your sources should be listed in alphabetical order, using the authors' last name. If there is no author or the author's name is missing, the title of the work will come first in the citation and you can use the title to organize the source into the list. This is the case for all of the "Works Cited" pages for the academic writing styles referred to in this article. Not Helpful 0 Helpful 0.

You can search on Google for "reference paper examples. How do I reference many dates in an essay? Answer this question Flag as I need an example of a descriptive essay. Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Already answered Not a question Bad question Other. Quick Summary To reference an essay using MLA style, add a citation after any information you found through a source, like facts or quotes. Did this summary help you?

Tips If you are assigned to write a paper or other written document in one of these styles, you need to purchase the style manual. It will contain nearly every instance not only of source citation, but paper formatting as well as grammar and punctuation that is unique to that style.

Conclude the entry with the page number or numbers and a period. Do not use "p," "pp" or "pg" to designate page numbers. List all the author's names in the order they appear in the book. Write first names last followed by initials. Separate the names with a comma. Erica Tambien began writing professionally in She is a freelance writer and communications consultant living in Reno, Nev. She holds a Bachelor of Science in business administration with an emphasis in marketing from the University of Nevada-Reno.

Use our citation tool to automatically generate your bibliography for any website. How to Write a Bibliography Summary.

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Read your essay aloud to see if the language flows naturally. Correct any grammar, punctuation and spelling errors. Use footnotes or endnotes to cite your sources.

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Reference Page. Every essay that uses research and outside information must also include a reference page where the sources are listed. The reference page is a separate page that comes at the end of the essay and lists your sources in alphabetical order by last name of the author.

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Ways to Incorporate References in an Essay. Just as how there are examples on how to start essays, there are also a number of ways on how you can list down your references. The incorporation of references in your essay will depend on the format that you will use. The essay reference at the end of a publication is a list of books and other literary sources, sections of which the writer indicated as quoted or paraphrased in his essay. The inclusion of other authoritative sources as reference is generally required for formal essays to enhance the credibility of the writer.

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A reference page lists the works cited in the text of an essay. You have several formats at your disposal to create a list of references. For example, APA style guidelines are very popular and easy to use. A reference to a paper or article within an edited book should in addition include: the editor and the title of the book; the first and last page numbers of the article or paper.