Digital Pirates in Practice: International Journal of Management 23 2: Computers in Entertainment 2 2: Factors Motivating Software Piracy: Prabuddha De and Janice I. DeGross, — Association for Information Systems. Motion Picture Association of America. Oberholzer-Gee, Felix, and Koleman Strumpf. Harvard Business School working paper. The Demand for Leisure.
Journal of Political Economy 79 1: Paton, David, Donald S. Siegel, and Leighton Vaughan Williams. The Case of Betting Taxation in the U. IEEE Spectrum 42 1: Economics Department, National University of Singapore. Global Entertainment and Media Outlook: Rob, Rafael, and Joel Waldfogel. Journal of Law and Economics 49 1: Shin, Seung Kyoon, Ram D. Lawrence Sanders, and Andrew B. Global Software Piracy Revisited: Communications of the ACM 47 1: A Guide for Financial Analysis. Journal of Cultural Economics 29 3: Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.
Retrieved September 11, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.
The entertainment industry in the United States is a multi-faceted combination of a wide variety of disciplines. Radio, insurance, publishing, merchandising, television, film, music, and the computer industries are only a few of the elements that make up this immense industry.
Any attempt to cover every aspect of this topic in less than five hundred pages would be foolhardy to say the least. However, it is possible to highlight specific elements of this industry and show how they have influenced U.
Live entertainment became popular in the United States during the late nineteenth century. Two types of theater developed: This form of theater was the model for vaudeville, a popular form of entertainment that existed in various forms from the early s until the mids.
Radio, and then television, pulled audiences away from the theater. This was due partially to the convenience of entertainment being provided in the home. Ironically, many of the performers from vaudeville successfully made the transition to these new media, thus regaining their audience. But this was far from the end of theater. Though vaudeville found an audience via mass communication , the "legitimate" theater thrived through the likes of Broadway , and through smaller venues across the country.
The film industry was born in , when William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, working out of Thomas Edison's laboratory, developed a motion picture camera and a primitive projection device known as a kinetoscope.
Francis Jenkins and Thomas Armat. As there were no movie theaters in existence, films were shown in vaudeville houses and in a variety of other locations.
The mass production of films did not begin until the early s. The subsequent boom that followed would have a massive impact on the U.
From the s to the s, Hollywood , California was the capital of the global movie producing market. One key to this industry's success was the manner in which it adapted when faced with economic and technological changes.
Antitrust and patent infringement suits, the Great Depression , World War II , and other factors managed to damage the industry's financial status, but it always recovered quickly. Instead of bowing down, the film industry simply expanded. Initially the cameraman wore many hats, acting as director, producer, editor, distributor, and in other capacities. Mass production changed that; as more films were produced, it became necessary to delegate responsibility to several individuals.
This diversification led to the creation of many jobs, and opened up a new market for numerous existing jobs as well. By the s, literally hundreds of people worked on each film produced. These artisans ranged from directors, cinematographers, and marketing specialists to insurance representatives, carpenters, and caterers. Production companies themselves had branched out into three different types: The majors are built up of large companies such as Disney or Sony, and usually handle not only film production but also distribution and marketing.
Mini — majors such as Orion Pictures Corporation, tend to specialize in specific film genres and have limited distribution ability. Lastly, the independents generally have no distribution power. In the mid — s, independent films were becoming more and more popular, as directors were able to apply more creative control to these pictures with very little corporate intervention.
Regardless of the production company type, the film industry continued to prosper. Radio started as a hobby in the early s and grew to become the world's first "instant" mass medium. As early as , radio stations were being constructed and broadcasting such programming as religious services, news, and sporting events. However, these regulations did not hinder the marketing of commercial products to mass culture. Indeed, commercial radio broadcasting became the number one way to advertise products of all types, including films — King Kong was the first motion picture to be promoted via the radio, in However, this national mass media dominance came to an end in the late s with the advent of television.
However, the Federal Communications Commission FCC continued licensing new radio stations — so much so that between and the number of stations had increased from to 4, Throughout the s and s radio stations developed a new marketing strategy; instead of targeting a national market, each station approached specific niche markets based on audience age, location, and other elements.
A variety of musical forms such as country, jazz, and rock n' roll could now be represented over the airwaves, catering to specific target audiences. Advertisers were able to promote their products based on the station's audience type.
This type of marketing remained the radio standard through the s. The line refers to money budgeted for creative talent, such as actors, writers, directors, and producers. National labor union representing performers, journalists and other artists working in entertainment and news.
Oz ayem — A Variety coinage meaning morning a. Back to top -T- tabmag — tabloid-style TV magazine show, e. Premier Logo Created with Sketch. Please fill out this field with valid email address. Advertise About Tips Contact Us. Also note that your credits will make your SAG status obvious.
If you are claiming SAG, but have no credits to back it up, professionals will be suspicious. You don't "audition" for an agent, a manager, a series of acting classes or showcases.
You might "meet with" those people, but you are not auditioning because there is no job available. If a business advertises an "audition" in California, there better be a job attached. This all revolves around an actual job. When businesses or young actors say they had a callback at an event or convention, we know they were involved in a scam because that is a misuse of an industry term, designed to make you feel "chosen" and special, when it actually means nothing.
An agent is typically a state licensed entity, and the only person who can legally solicit employment on behalf of a child. A manager is unlicensed, and unregulated. Their job descriptions are different as well.
If you say you have an "agent" or are approached by an "agency" in the mall or online, you should be sure that the person is actually a real licensed talent agent. For more about agents and managers, read here: An agent is a licensed entity see above. Professionals who work in casting are unionized as Teamsters and they have chosen to call themselves Casting Directors, Casting Associates, or Casting Assistants. Those who use the term "casting agent" are probably not involved in the legitimate industry.
A "voucher" is a half sheet, triplicate form with SAG on the top, and they are given to union actors who are working on union productions. Occasionally, a "voucher" is given to a non-union actor who is working on a SAG job. If you collect 3 of these vouchers, you may be eligible to join the Screen Actor's Guild. Not to be confused with a voucher, non-union background actors get a time sheet.
It looks similar, is small in size, and doesn't say "SAG" on it. Both documents are used as a log of your time on set, provide documentation for payroll, and are sent to the payroll company at the end of the day. Principal actors do not get vouchers, ever. So if you say you got one, professionals know it was a background job.
Both have the specifics of the deal such as pay rates, dates of work, credits, etc. Typically a "deal memo" is the precursor to the formal employment contract and is a little less formal, and a contract is often not signed until you go to work. The contract will be a legal sized document with several pages as opposed to a background voucher. You must have a lawyer, or a licensed talent agent to negotiate an employment deal. This is why you will see us say that you MUST have an agent, but a manager is optional.
Trades: The daily and weekly periodicals of the industry, such as “Variety” and “The Hollywood Reporter.” Translation: The reproduction of a book, movie or other work into another language. Treatment: A prose account of the story line of a film. Usually between 20 and 50 pages.
Trades. Industry newspapers and magazines read by all professionals to keep up with trends and news in the entertainment business. Trailer. A mobile dressing room for an actor sometimes in a camper. Also known as Honey Wagon. Transparencies. The slide form of a photograph. Treatment.
One of the dilemmas I face as a journalist covering independent films has to do with the terminology used in discussing the industry. Many of my articles have to do with movie production, distribution, box office results, and finances. Entertainment Industry Entertainment industry is a group of sub-industries devoted to entertainment. Entertainment industry is used to describe the mass media companies that control the distribution and manufacture of mass media entertainment.
Los Angeles Councilwoman Wendy Greuel, another panelist at the Entertainment Industry Business Council Legislative Forum, pointed to the reduction in business taxes, approved last month by the City Council, that will gradually cut the tax burden by as much as 15 percent. above the line — Industry term: Industry term for movies and TV budgets. The line refers to money budgeted for creative talent, such as actors, writers, directors, and producers. The line refers to money budgeted for creative talent, such as actors, writers, directors, and producers.