The standard rule for typing the main body of a manuscript or report is double spacing unless there is an special reason for single spacing it. Triple spacing is used before and after the main heading while side headings blocked and capitals are preceded by a triple space 2 blank lines and followed by a double space 1 blank line. Single spacing is used for listings, enumerations, long quotations, footnotes, and other displays.
Direct quotation of not more than three typewritten lines in length is run into the text and typed double spaced. A long direct quotation is typed single spaced. Row, explain it this way: A quotation of three or fewer lines of typing is displayed simply for being typed within quotation marks, but a longer quotation is given special display.
It is single spaced and indented five spaces from regular margins on both sides. Unbounded manuscripts whose pages are not going to be fastened like reports or articles for publication are usually typed with at least one-inch on all sides. On the first page, however, an extra inch at the top is provided so that the top margin falls two inches deep.
With top-bound pages, the top margin on all pages, except the first, is increased by one-half inch. With a side binding, the left margin is increased by one-half inch on all pages. Thus, on a side-bounded page the center of typed line moves to the right of actual center one-half the number of spaces left for the binding. Every page in a manuscript is assigned a number although not indicated on every page. For example, the first page, where the title appears or the beginning of a chapter no page figure is typed but a number is allowed for that page.
The page number is usually typed one-half. Typing Manuscripts with Footnotes and Endnotes or one inch form the top edge, aligned with the right margin and opposite the running head, if there is no running head, the page number is usually placed at the center of the page. Top-bound manuscript is usually placed at the center of the page. Top-bound manuscript is usually numbered at the center, one or one-half inch at the bottom of the page.
In typing manuscripts with footnotes, special care should be exercised so that all the footnotes corresponding to the references that appear on the page are accommodated on the same page. This can be facilitated with the use of typing aids. Some typists make a light pencil mark about an inch from the bottom of the page before they begin to type Beamer, Marshall Hanne and Popham, This warning line indicates to the typist that he should stop typing on that page to allow for an adequate bottom margin.
If a footnote must be placed on the page, the pencil mark can easily be raised three or four lines to indicate the point where the footnotes begins. The typist must remember to erase these marks after he removes the sheet of paper or carbon pack from the typewriter. Another typing aid is the use of a special guide sheet Turabian.
This may be made of an onion skin or a very thin type of paper and placed between the original copy and first sheet of carbon paper. It is cut the same length as the typing paper but extending one-half inch to the right where the numbers to indicate the line of writing are typed. It may be typed in either black or red latters.
Typing Manuscripts with Footnotes and Endontes A simple and practical backing-sheet guide may be made as follows: At the top right edge of a whole sheet, count numbers 1 to 13, downward. Mark every half inch. These marks will serve as a guide for determining the starting point for the page margins of the manuscripts being typed. From this point, type lines 1 to 15 upward. This will indicate the number of writing lines available for typing the footnotes corresponding to reference on that page.
Abbreviations used in Footnotes. Some footnotes are abbreviated to avoid typing several times a reference already used. For example, if a reference is the same as the ones immediately preceding, the abbreviation, in the same place is used, with the volume and page reference if they are different Stuart, Further explanation of this term by Lessenberry and Wanous is quoted as follows: When two footnotes contain reference to the same work and one follows the other without any intervening footnote, use Ibid.
The name of the publication and other identifying date need not be repeated Loc. This often causes a great deal of confusion, but the most important thing is to be consistent. You may well find that a specific referencing system is prescribed for a piece of work, but if not just make sure that whichever form you choose, you are consistent in using it throughout and keeping all your references uniform in format.
Once you have decided how to reference, stick with that system throughout your essay. Two of the most well-known and commonly used referencing methods are Oxford and Harvard referencing. These are the systems you are most likely to be asked to use for an essay or thesis and also the most widely recognised, so it is advisable to use one of these if you are choosing your own reference system. The main difference between these two systems is that the Oxford method uses footnotes to place references at the end of each page, whilst the Harvard method includes certain information within the text.
There are many complex details involved in using these styles of referencing, which would be too numerous to list here, so it is highly advisable to consult an in-depth guide to how to reference correctly.
The information below is intended to give an overview of the main points and some helpful advice to bear in mind when using them. This form of referencing uses footnotes to present referencing information unobtrusively at the bottom of each page of text.
A small number called a note identifier usually formatted in superscript follows any quote you use and refers to the number at the bottom of the page beside which the citation for that reference may be found.
Most computers have helpful functions to enable you to do this automatically without having to enter the numbers yourself, so if you go back to add an extra reference, the numbering will automatically adjust to take this into account. A footnote should contain the following information, with the title of the book or work in italics and all other text in normal font: You can usually find the publication date and place on the reverse of the title page inside the book.
If you use further references to the same text later on you can abbreviate subsequent footnotes to simply: The Harvard referencing system includes the author, the date of the work and the page number in brackets in the body of the text, immediately following the quote or reference.
Depending on a company's goals, there are a variety of reasons top management may decide to undertake cost controls; it could be for proven cost reduction Corbridge, , p. In the Harvard style, a bibliography of the all references is included as a separate section at the end of the piece of work to give full details of each text, including its title, publisher and place of publication. This is by no means a complete guide to the intricacies of how to reference, but it is hopefully a helpful introduction to clear up the common confusion between the two main referencing styles.
There are myriad possible tiny variants — for example in instances when a book has more than one author — so it is advisable to consult a guide or your editor or supervisor for clarification. Using the Oxford referencing system does not necessarily mean you will not also be required to include a bibliography. But there is always a bibliography in the Harvard referencing system. Remember, the most important thing is to make sure that whatever stylistic decisions you make about your footnotes and references, they remain completely uniform and consistent throughout your essay or dissertation writing.
Footnotes must be listed numerically and consecutively, both in your essay and in your Footnote citation. Footnote numbers must be superscripted. In your text, add a superscripted number immediately after the quote or reference cited with no space.
Guide to Essay Writing - Footnotes. Contents. Footnotes. Footnotes, notes or endnotes As a rule-of-thumb one could say that, although footnotes or notes are necessary, your interpretation should be able to stand without them. Thus, you should not carry on your main argument in footnotes.
Definition of footnotes in word count? Include textboxes, etc. Openstax college essay writing paper footnotes at the jan 18, visa bulletin analysis essay and look one of our precision is jan 08, Also to serve as it easy. Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of a page. They cite references or comment on a designated part of the text above it. For example, say you want to add an interesting comment to a sentence you have written, but the comment is not directly related to the argument of your paragraph.
Add a footnote to your essay to cite all quotes and paraphrased material. Do this to give credit to your sources and to make it easy for your reader to find the source that you are citing. Footnotes are auxiliary information that further clarifies certain points being made in the essay. Since this isn’t a part of the body of the essay, most teachers and professors do not count footnotes as part of the essay’s word count.