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The Author calls this A. Most of the diploid species cannot cross with one another, the exceptions being clauda x eriantha, wiestii x hirtula, wiestii x strigosa, and hirtula x strigosa as listed in Table 1. Within the tetraploids, only the following crosses are possible: This shows that possession of the same genomes, or sets of chromosomes, does not guarantee interfertility within the diploid or tetraploid species.
Ethiopia, or the highlands of Abyssinia, is the centre of origin for A. This is to show that in the middle column for the tetraploids, a naked oat tetraploid has yet to be found.
Many investigators, as reviewed by Legget and Thomas , thought that the cultivated hexaploid oat had been derived by a simple trichotomy from a common progenitor. This was found to be improbable. If all 3 groups came from a single basic species, the polyploid species the hexaploids would have to be autopolyploids but they are not. Autopolyploids are derived by the doubling of the constituent genomes, as by the conversion of AA, the single genome, to AAAA.
There is only one oat species like this, A. This is the only outbreeding and perennial species of Avena and the only one that is autotetraploid. All other oat species are allopolyploids. One fact is certain: The same is true for the hexaploid wheat genome, which also has an unknown donor. The discovery of A. This is said to be a structural analogy but this does not explain anything. Note that there is a large diagram on p. The explanation given is that the donor is either extinct or has evolved into a different species.
This depends entirely on the value of the hypothesis itself, that differentiation is a function of time. The possibility that the genome donor may never have existed is not even stated, let alone the alternative which that possibility would imply: This applies both to oats and wheat, Triticum aestivum L. Much ingenious effort and thinking have gone into this work, but we have not yet exploited a fraction of the cultivated oat gene pool.
The history of the science of genetics has been a stormy one. He described over experiments, including Nicotiana rustica x N. Mendel, however, had also discovered continuous variation, when he crossed white-flowered and purple-red-flowered beans. This gave an intermediate flower colour pink in the F 1 progeny and a continuous spread from white to purple-red in the second generation. Geneticists then began to see that alleles pairs of a gene had small but cumulative effects with semi-dominance rather than complete dominance, which were behaving in a Mendelian fashion.
This gave rise to the multiple-gene hypothesis. This is now one of the most important principles of genetics Gardner and Snustad, This principle has been greatly strengthened by the use of statistical methods by R. Fisher laid the foundation for the analysis of variance and the beginnings of experimental design and success in comparing oat variety yields in biometrically designed trials in Australia Fisher These trials proved to other plant breeders that yield differences were or were not significant.
There are various classifications for oats. These include those based on grain morphology. One can look at the grains after threshing or harvesting and see if the rachilla or stalk remains with the primary grain Avena sativa or with the secondary grain Avena byzantina. Similarly Swan has the hybrid morphology of its sister-line, West. Swan and West belong to the specialised grain oats and therefore another mark of identity is required.
The photograph of floret separation in Figure 2. The early habit of growth is, however, the best indicator of economic significance. The habit of growth has a significant impact on the economic significance of oats and this is further described under the latter sections in this book that address dual-purpose oat varieties. These groups are prostrate and erect growing varieties and these are further sub-divided into intermediate, semi-erect, erect and very erect described below.
The most reliable mark of identity is whether the juvenile stage has a prostrate Blackbutt and Carbeen , intermediate Cooba , semi-erect Coolabah , erect Avon, Cassia, Stout and Swan or a very erect Moore and West habit of growth.
The prostrate varieties bury their growing point, tiller profusely, resist frost and grazing damage and are therefore dual-purpose varieties, suitable both for grazing and grain production. These two groups of oats, based on growth habit, have been compared in South Australia Craig and Potter, This trial was evenly grazed by sheep, which also provided fertiliser and an even grazing.
Comparing 0, 1 and 2 grazings, the erect varieties yielded more grain after one grazing than after 0 or 2.
The most prostrate variety, Carbeen, was the only variety to yield more grain after 2 grazings than after 0 or 1 grazing in this trial. In this trial, plants were grazed by sheep for 3 days to a uniform height of 2.
The prostrate variety, Carbeen, significantly outyielded all other varieties in grain recovery. The variety Carbeen, and the details of this trial, are further described in Chapter Three. The erect varieties from Western Australia have larger grains than the prostrate varieties from the Glen Innes breeders, and are usually accepted for milling for this reason, and the fact that they are grown in a drier finishing season, which does not discolour the grain.
Avena strigosa , cultivar Saia, has very small grains which give it a high volumetric weight. Economic factors, and to some extent political factors, determine the motivation to grow a particular crop or pasture. These factors encompass global agricultural land potential, world population and comparative crop and pasture yields. This data has been assembled and critically evaluated by Sassone and further elaborated by the Author in the remainder of this chapter 2.
Oats, mainly Avena sativa and A. Considerable research and developments have been conducted on this crop in Australia and overseas. The application of research findings in agriculture has contributed to overcoming world food shortages Sassone, Such has been the impact of improved practices in agriculture that countries in Asia, for example, are now demanding more milk products and meat in the diet as compared with traditional foods, in particular, rice. This demand for milk and meat products now increases the need for more efficient means of their production, including improved pastures and grain production.
The role of dual-purpose grain types, oats grown for both grazing and grain production, to assist these developing countries to meet their demands in the Southern Hemisphere, including Australia, has been identified as being important Guerin, ; Guerin and Guerin, Oats is not a coarse grain only, or a source of carbohydrate only such as wheat and rice Whittemore and Elsley, Oats, however, possesses other characteristics which make it unique as a food source for both humans and livestock and these have been described earlier in this chapter.
Due to favourable amino-acid ratios, oats have a higher biological value than barley, wheat or maize. Population growth or rate of increases is defined as the birth rate minus the death rate. As of , this value for the world was 1. Africa has the highest rate of increase in the world at 3. Asia and Latin America also have the second and third fastest rates of increase.
These latter regions have fertility rates below 2. Sassone predicts that world populations may begin to decrease by the year Based on the FAO data, it is evident that world food production has increased, regardless of world population growth.
Over the period studied by Sassone , food production, especially rice and meat, quadrupled, while world population has little more than doubled. It is apparent that farmers in the developing world have adopted many of the new technologies and developments in agricultural science, which have dramatically improved crop yields. Intense effort by agricultural extension practitioners in developing countries have improved the rates of adoption of appropriate technologies for both grain and pasture production in these countries.
These adoptions have included improved understanding of the need for fertilisers, pesticides, herbicides, soil tillage practices, and the growing of improved crop and pasture varieties. In India for example, on average, the population consumes the 2, calories recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board Sassone, Meat production consistently increased from to Table 1.
Total cereal tonnages, including wheat and rice, declined in volume over the same period. An inference that can be made from this data is that the area of land under pasture is likely to be increasing. World grain prices fell after , while stocks of grain rapidly increased Sassone Supply controls were applied in most countries in the form of acreage reduction measures.
During , difficulties stemmed from depressed agricultural exports, high interest rates, and supply surpluses. In the developed nations, farmers reduced grain production after because of massive grain surpluses.
The expansion of land areas used for rice and meat production has broader implications for integrating more balanced diets into the households of developing countries. Furthermore, the increased area of land devoted to pastures reflects the potential of increased crop rotations and ley farming and, therefore, general soil improvement.
World cereal grain yields have increased marginally in the period to The greatest increase was observed with the wheat crop. The increases in barley and oat yields were lower over the same period.
However, the accuracy of Australian oat yield statistics do not reflect actual yields because the oat crop is typically grazed throughout the growing season prior to harvest and considerably less stringent agronomic management is applied to this crop than to other cereals, in particular wheat and barley Simmons, World grain production multiplied by 2.
In the s and s, a bushel of grain was worth the equivalent in dollar value of a barrel of crude oil. Farmers in the developed world therefore reduced grain production after Total world grain yields increased substantially over the period of to from 1. Over the same period, the total area of land used for grain production decreased from 7. However, there was a temporary increase during this period to 7. As a result of this increased productivity in grain production, approximately 30x10 6 ha have been made available for other agricultural activities including the growing of improved pastures.
This increased availability of land for pasture production has increased the potential for dual-purpose grazing cereals, including oats. There is evidence that this has occurred from the increase in total meat production worldwide Tables 1. This total increase in meat production, however, does not include increases due to the increased total number of lot-fed livestock and other intensive livestock industries.
The arable area of Australia of 48 million ha includes 17 million ha of crops and 31 million ha of sown pasture and grasses. Forestry includes 41 million ha of native forest, 1 million of plantation forestry and In no other country or continent has livestock production dominated agriculture as in Australia.
Hence Australia has played a leading role in the development of pasture improvement and development of dual-purpose oat varieties.
Furthermore, Australia has a large potential to improve its dual-purpose oat and hence livestock production.
While there is a link between oat crop yields and the length of the growing season, on a world basis Table 1.
The small-scale, isolated nature of agricultural production, relative to urban industries in the European countries makes state aid essential. O'Brien showed how Germany led the world in this respect, followed by Denmark and France.
England was indifferent to rural problems, due to her espousal of free trade see glossary , except in wartime when feverish efforts were made to increase crop yields. Australia has inherited the same predilection for free trade with disastrous repercussions on both agriculture and manufacturing industries. Cribb portrays in detail this state of Australian agriculture. A small economy is defined as having negligible market power and one that cannot influence the equilibrium prices in world markets by its trade policy.
Protection may create sheltered markets and monopolies with little incentive for producers to be efficient Parikh et al. Fair trade, however, is necessary to protect farm families as is being done in the European Union under the revamped Common Agricultural Policy. Countries will become more self-supporting and trade-restrictive in the future, as free trade inflicts further economic damage on countries like Australia.
Craig and Potter , however, point out advantages of grazing the oat crop: A Stimulating tillering and increased number of grain producing lateral shoots; B Reducing the incidence of fungal diseases common in ungrazed crops; and C Reduction in lodging by promoting stronger shoots and removing excess leaf area.
This was twice the rate of grazed ryegrass-clover pastures yielding 4. Records for a day winter late May to August. Clover-grass pastures grow abundantly in early summer but very slowly in winter in comparison with winter or dual-purpose oats. This result was achieved with the old variety, Algerian, which gave at Richmond NSW, in a separate trial, less than one-seventh the July yield of the High-vigour oat, Blackbutt.
Therefore, oats and pasture are both necessary for good livestock husbandry. By shutting up large areas of oats in early September, soon after grazing, Crofts in no time could still recover one tonne of grain per ha.
Although drier winters are better for pasturing sheep and cattle on an annual pasture like oats, there is considerable potential untapped in the southern areas of NSW. In the winter rainfall zone at Orange, NSW, Crofts obtained a remarkable response with Algerian liable to frost damage in the severe winters in New England , and to heavy rates of seeding and nitrogen in and The extra yield from nitrogen was less expensive than quality pasture hay.
By excluding sheep from the crop from early September onwards, the 1 tonne per ha grain recovery obtained could be sold to offset total costs, including kg of seed and 67kg elemental nitrogen per ha. Alternatively, the grain could be kept as a drought reserve Crofts Algerian, however, could not produce such yields in a year like on the New England Tablelands, due to frost damage.
Forsberg and Reeves found that oats, next to rye Secale cereale L. Maximum oat yields require soil pH of 5. Nutrient NPK needs for oats are less than those for wheat Triticum spp. Overcoming the limitations of statistics is critical in maximising the productivity of the oat crop. Government or industry compiled statistics typically have little value in guiding the direction of research or funding of oat breeding programs.
It is more profitable to study a few statistically designed, well-managed and executed yield trials, as described in the latter chapters of this book.
The world statistics Table 1. This is not recorded in the state and national yield statistics. This is a very important aspect of oat production that unfortunately is not reflected in state and national yield statistics. Other examples include the reported statistical oat yields in Ireland. Ireland, although possessing the world's highest average yield, result from late spring sowings and could be boosted further by winter or dual-purpose oats that utilise a longer growing season.
The same applies to China as well as to NSW, where late sowings result in low yielding crops that are far behind actual Government research findings in NSW, as recorded here. Oat yields at Cowra, NSW, have been higher than any values reported in world statistics. The research plots at Cowra were not irrigated and yet out-yielded the irrigated trial at Coleambally.
Other examples are described in the following chapters. Statistics on oat production in NSW have been documented for many years. These figures give little indication of oat yield potential, however, and are of minor value only because they do not always report which varieties were sown, soil types, sowing dates or if the crop was grazed and for how long. This has been the case at least in NSW.
NSW oat production statistics, which are composite data compiled by the NSW Government, and grouped from all regions of the state, are criticised because of their failure to show the differences between the summer rainfall northern zone and the winter rainfall southern zone.
Furthermore, such oat production statistics do not reflect the total biomass yield or the total value that the oat crop contributes to farming systems. The application of these statistics has led to a frost susceptible oat variety being used for pasture research at Armidale , after the frost resistant Blackbutt had already been released to farmers in Shortcomings in government statistics result in poor funding of oat research.
Political economy, sociology and lack of knowledge of agronomy and the value of oats for human and livestock nutrition, are also inhibiting the further exploitation of the oat crop. In , only Scone and Windouran both in NSW showed higher yields for oats than for wheat and barley Fitzsimmons, Before , even in 8 irrigation Shires, wheat and barley outyielded oats in production of grain.
Beginning in at Leeton, NSW, oat yields started to rise above those of wheat and barley Table 4. During the previous 52 years from to , the wheat and barley yields were always higher than those of oats, and barley was the highest yielder until From onwards, wheat took over as the highest yielder of the three cereals and continued so into the - period.
Shires in NSW in which oat grain yields are superior to those of wheat grain are those in which irrigation is available. In these areas excessive grazing is physically impossible and less likely than the production of crops for grain and this is described in detail in Chapter Four.
There are other limitations to the value of oat and cereal grain yield statistics. Even when the Bureau of Statistics gives the areas of oats that are grazed, it is important to know the name and characteristics of the actual variety of oats that was grown.
In many cases specialised grain varieties, usually from Western Australia, have been grazed in the colder, drier winters of NSW and because of their frost and grazing susceptibility have not recovered much, if any, grain. The comparative statistical cereal yield data presented in Figure 1. This is counter intuitive because in a wet harvest period, wheat takes much longer to dry out than oats, and in a very short time after rain, the oats can be harvested.
This enables better use of expensive harvesting equipment during the harvest season, even if grain storage facilities have to be increased, or organised more efficiently. Longer season cultivars can be safely harvested in the higher rainfall wheat areas, using Glen Innes to breed rust resistance. Another important factor in statistics is the length of the growing season, which can vary from year to year, and the response of the oat variety. This can be broken down into the following traits: A the length of the vegetative period of the variety, B its response to frost or vernalisation, and C how rapidly it can flower and set grain after the last day of grazing.
As a result, oat research receives only a fraction of the funds due to it in Australia where every other crop is funded on the basis of its total tonnage delivered to a government agency or entering commercial channels. In turn, Australian farmers are denied the benefits of more thorough and long-term research and plant breeding in oats.
This is due to a lack of knowledge and skill relative to the oat crop for a particular location, soil and climate. A similar lack of skill in wheat growing would result in uneconomic yields of wheat. Prevention of Ophiobolus attacks on wheat requires that wheat should follow a crop of early sown, well-grazed oats, to kill susceptible grasses that spread Take-all disease Lazenby and Matheson Heavy grazing of oats in cool winters will also destroy black oats A. It is anticipated that the research presented throughout this book on the value of the oat crop to farmers will help fill the gap between scientific research into the further development of oats as a pasture and grain crop and farming practice.
There is now ample evidence to demonstrate that oats play an important role in human and livestock nutrition. While the significance of the oat grain in benefiting human health has received considerable attention, however, relatively little attention has been given to the important attribute of combined grazing, grain production and total crop value in global agriculture.
The oat crop, because of its potential for grain recovery after grazing, has a significant role to play in increasing global pasture production. Particular oat groups, specifically those with prostrate growth habit, have the required attributes for inclusion in breeding programs to develop suitable oat varieties for dual-purpose capability and therefore for increasing pasture production. The application of oat statistics by government agencies is holding back the attainment of higher oat yields in Australia.
Governments should review how oat production statistics are used and recognise that these typically underestimate the overall value of the oat crop in achieving sustainable farming systems. Hypochlesterolemic effects of oat bran and bean products. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition An Australian supermarket chain based at Toorak Rd.
Effect of oat gum and oat bran on glucoregulation in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. Clinical Investigations in Medicine 11 Supplement. Nutritional factors in cataract. Annual Review of Nutrition The effect of grazing on the grain yields of ten oat cultivars in the south east of South Australia. Agricultural Record 10, More winter feed and drought reserves from high density, nitrogen fertilized oats. Agricultural Gazette NSW 77, 5: Comparison of grazing oats and pasture for sheep production.
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